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Q1 – Week 7 – 10/11 – 10/15

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10/11 – Monday – Columbus Day – Indigenous People day

He discovered America?  But he only made landfall in the Bahamas and Cuba?  Wait didn’t the Vikings make the voyage?  Wait the Chinese mapped out the America’s 70 years before the voyage?  Wait, didn’t native american Indian’s “discover” the America’s first?  Wait wasn’t the America’s already here?
 
http://www.history.com/topics/exploration/christopher-columbus
 
I think I should get a National Day!  I discovered Google Forms with Checkbox grids!!!  We will “recognize” next Saturday as National Grodski day and Yes you will not have to go to school!
You will have a form unfortunately…:)
 
 

 

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10/12 – Tuesday – B Day – 

Main focus 
     a) To complete the review of the test 1 and the forum.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 b) Introduce a structural way to investigate how “related” organisms are based on 
          morphology.
     
1. Lets see if we can figure out the trouble with the forum. You will be given the opportunity to complete the forum or figure how to use it.  

Link to Test 1 Key: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1KzQE1YnkbV1vjRB9_jWNae4ZUfWeTvve/view?usp=sharing                   

    Test 1 Review: 2 parts
 
a) Review your graded Test with the key..  Bring any questions to class Tuesday
     I will explain how I graded the test and make a general review of the test.
 
Please try to understand every question you got incorrect. Your next test will have similar topics and I will COUNT THE BEST GRADE out of 2 for the next test, it is in best interest to review your mistakes.  
b) Make 6 HIGH QUALITY posts to Test 1 Forum: (posted below).
 
     3 of these posts MUST be unique posts regarding the test questions on the test only!
     3 of these posts MUST be a response to someone else.
 
Please try to understand every question you got incorrect. Your next test will have similar topics and I will COUNT THE BEST GRADE out of 2 for the next test, it is in best interest to review your mistakes.                                                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                                                                                     . 2.  Morphology presentation/lecture
  

Evolution Presentation: Slides 1 – 12 today

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10/12 – Tuesday’s Homework: –

1: Complete the forum for test 1 if you have not done so already.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2: Please view the videos below and complete the form:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

2: For questions 4, 5, 6 of the form:  

  

2: For questions 7 and 8 of the form:  

 

 
2: Evolution of Homo sapians Form

End of Tuesday!

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10/13 – Wednesday –  A Day – 

Main focus 
     a) Morphology of skull of early human skulls discussion.
                                                                                                                                                                                           b) Evolutionary relatedness – Diversity of Life, Unity of life – Decent with modification –             phylogenic tree and cladograms.                                                                 
     
1. Reviewed last night form and discussed the evolutionary theories of human development.                         
2. Continued through the Evolution Presentation to learn how to “map” evolutionary relatedness using 
     evidence like morphology of skulls to build a phylogenetic tree and cladogram.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    3.  Classwork practice with a cladogram:                                                                                                                                                         
          Cladogram Classwork 2122.pdf
           View Download
                                                                                                                                                                   

Evolution Presentation: Slides 12 – 35 today

Today’s Cladogram lesson:  

  

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10/13 – Wednesday’s Homework: –

Please Read
 
So we have learned that there is overwhelming evidence that supports evolution through natural selection.  We have seen that this change can be very quick and through careful work of the Grants in the Galapagos Islands, specifically on Daphne Major, we have seen that evolution in the finches beak depth can occur quickly in response to changing environmental conditions.  Remember that a drought on the island made significant changes in the beak depths in a very short time period. 
 
Notice that in 1977 there was a drought that caused a selective pressure for larger beak depths as only larger seeds were available after this drought. This trend was reversed in the 1980’s as the wet period introduced more smaller seed plants back to the island.

 

At the end of 1982, the Grants witnessed evolution again as a rainy period brought back the diversification of food, especially the small seeds.  So one piece of evidence of evolution is the evolution that we have witnessed first hand, with many thanks to the Grants!
 
Another piece of evidence of evolution, is in the morphology of organisms. That is the structures of organisms that tell a tale of their evolutionary decent.   Evolution is a process of decent with modification that occurs through natural selection as descendants face different environmental  conditions.  As a result  related species (species of organisms that evolved from one to another) can have underlying similarities yet function differently.  Similar structures from evolutionary related organisms is called Homology.
 
These are diagrams of the morphology of mammals who we have identified as being related by evolutionary decent in large part because of there homologous structures.

These structures have different functions (flight in bats) or navigating water (in whales) yet structurally similar.

Notice that all of these organisms have a big bone attached to smaller bones called phalanges (blue).

 

We have classified many organisms in terms of evolutionary descent mainly through morphology in concert with the fossil record.  Even before DNA mapping, scientists have been able to connect the pieces of evolution of organisms from morphology.  Since the advent of DNA sequencing (finding the actual code for genes to show evolutionary relationships) morphology has been found to be very accurate in determining these relationships as DNA data from organisms that are related morphologically are also related similarly in their genetic code.
 
Last night we investigated the evolutionary relationships of early hominids to consider how we evolved.  We used morphology (curved fingers, size and shape of skull, as well as the length of the arms to) to make judgements on the homology of our species with the older species. 
 
The evolution of homo sapiens has many theories. One of which states that the morphology of the early hominids resulted due to a change in diet.  Our current skulls are significantly larger than the skulls that you investigated last night due large part to a larger brain.  A larger brain requires an extreme amount of CONSTANT energy and that could only be achieved when our early ancestors could better control the availability of better nutrition.  Only when out early ancestors began hunting in coordinated large groups and using weapons did the nutrition improve dramatically. Some theorize that the our evolution to present day humans resulted very quickly like the finches in the Galapagos Islands when we learned how to throw, which lead to improved fitness from improved hunting techniques that lead to improved nutrition.
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Look at the homology of the skulls found in different parts in the world.  The age of these bones are determined through radioactive dating of surrounding material they were found in.  We will discuss this in class.
Tonights homework is about another way that we were able to have a CONSTANT supply of energy to our larger brains and that is to cultivate plants.  This ability to grow crops came much later than the ability to hunt effectively in larger groups with weapons.  It was a significant development because it allowed humans to gather in larger communities in more permanent residences as they were became less nomadic and less dependent on hunting for all there nutrition.
One important plant that is vital to sustain our current society and one that was has been cultivated for over 8000 years in North and South America is maize or corn.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1.  Please view the video below and

  2.  complete the form below.                                                                                             

1: The Origin of Corn Video for the a maizing form below:  

  

2: An a Maizing Form

End of Wednesday!

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10/14 – Thursday –  B Day – 

Main focus  
                                                                                                                                                                                            a) Evolutionary relatedness – Diversity of Life, Unity of life – Decent with modification                – phylogenic tree and cladograms.                                                                 
     
1. Reviewed last night amazing form.                                                                                                                          
How AMAIZING was that video!  So the ancestor to corn has been right under our noses all along but because of the mutations in only few genes that happen to be regulatory genes (switches) the 2 organisms are phenotypically very different!  Can you see why I am teaching you about chromosomes with evolution and now introducing more genetics into our discussion?  All these concepts are intertwined.  Can you guess the next major unit we will start?
 
So what is homologous in Maize in corn?  What homologous structure do they both have?
                        
2. Continued through the Evolution Presentation to learn how to “map” evolutionary relatedness using 

     evidence  to build a phylogenetic tree and cladogram. 

Classwork:  Minion cladogram                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   

Today’s notes:
Phylogenic Trees and cladograms
 
Phylogenetic trees of the  finches in the Galapagos islands:
Evolutionary relationships of the 13 species. Logic suggests that new species developed from older species and  that this decent occurred with modification or better decent with newer modifications.
 
Notice the current existing species are located to the right.  The more you move to the left the more time has passed or older the species.  Notice the length of the branch (x-axis) denotes the increased age of the species, meaning it will have greater differences in characteristics or more mutations (due to longer time period).  Also Note the node, the point that illustrates the place in the diagram that reveals when speciation has occurred (reproductive isolation).  A clade is group of species that are related more closely because they share a common ancestor.                                        
Notice arrow above that points to the Node or common ancestor to all the birds that flew from South America.  
 
Cladograms are diagrams that are very similar to phylogenic trees that show common ancestry between species but are written a bit diffrently.  Cladograms tend to be hypothesis of how organisms are related by morphology, archeology, or genetic mapping.  
 

Cladograms are built using many forms of data. In this case morphological data is used to construct this hypothesis of  how these organisms are most closely related.

Time in these diagrams is the Y – axis so unlike the diagram above, as you move higher and right the species becomes younger or evolved later than the organisms that are lower and to the left.

Notice that these diagram also have Nodes or places that illustrate common ancestors.
In Cladograms, often the new characteristic in written where it first develops.

Notice that the human all the characteristics listed and thus is the last to evolve while the Lamprey has the least of the characteristics and thus evolved much earlier in time.

 

Some cladograms are written this way:

 

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10/14 – Thursday’s Homework: 

1: Please read my notes posted (above) today.                                                                                                                      
2. Study for tomorrow’s cladogram quiz using the following resources:
             
           a)  Watch the Bozeman science video below on Cladograms.
                    A real easy explanation to a real easy problem. You may find it helpful.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  b) Review the Minion’s worksheet that we completed in class. 
                       Evolution 1 – Cladograms of Minions.pdf
                       View Download
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Evolution 1 – Cladograms of Minions key p.pdf
                       View Download

                                     

           c) Review with my video below on how to complete the Minion Cladogram.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  d) Complete the practice AP cladogram THAT I GAVE OUT IN Class with my video below:
                     Cladogram Practice Problem new.pdf
                     View Download
 
         e) Please complete the Evolution 2 – Cladograms and biotech.pdf worksheet and review with the key below:
                   I did not give this worksheet out but I think the second side especially could be a good practice. 
                                                 
          f) Slides  12 – 35 in the Evolution presentation posted under Wednesday.                                                                                                                                                                                                    
*Remember that having similar characteristics among 2 organisms most often means that they have similar genetic code.  So if we base our cladograms on the similarity of genes or the similarity of proteins made then we are really using the best form of comparisons to discern how closely related 2 species are.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Evolution 2 – Cladograms and biotech.pdf
View Download
                                                                              There is an error in my key.. Can you find it?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Evolution 2 – Cladograms and biotech key p.pdf
View Download

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Understand that a cladogram is a hypothesis of how we think organisms have descended with modifications .  These modifications are newer traits or alleles.  Simply put organisms evolve from simple to more complex.

*Remember that Cladograms Phylogenetic trees are not definite but just a logically linear representation how organisms evolved from simpler to more complex traits using all available evidence.  There were originally written with only morphological data from fossils.
These cladograms can often be written in more than one way.  Current cladograms can change if new data (morphology of new fossils, or DNA mapping ) becomes available.  
                                                                      

a) Bozeman video on cladograms:  

  

c) mrgrodskichemistry’s video on cladograms:  (hey that’s me!)

  

d:  Video on the AP practice cladogram problem:  


  

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10/15 – Friday –  A Day – 

Main focus 
a) Evolutionary relatedness – Diversity of Life, Unity of life – Decent with modification –             phylogenic tree and cladograms.                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                                                        b) Cladogram Quiz
 
1. Reviewed the cladogram homework.                         
2. Classwork – AP advanced problem                                                                                                                                      
Cladogram_Phylogentic Tree Advanced Problem 2018.pdf                                                                                                              View Download   

Cladogram-Phylogentic Tree Advanced Problem 2018 KEY.pdf                                                                                                           View Download                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

3. Cladogram/phylogenetic Tree review –
 
     a) Convergent/divergent evolution
     b) Node = common ancestor
     c) most related species in same clade
     d) Branches can spin
     e)  Logical decent with modifications
 
                modifications can be a loss of an allele  – Vestigial structures –
                but more times than not it is the addition of allele.

                                                                                                                                                                                                        4. Cladogram Quiz                                                                                                                                             

                                                                                                                                                                         

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10/15 – Friday’s Homework: –

1:  No Homework! Enjoy!