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Q2 – Week 5 – 12/13 – 12/17

                                                                                                                           Jump to:  Tuesday,   Wednesday,  Thursday,  Friday                                                                                                                                   ___________________________________________________________

12/13 – Monday –  B Day

Main focus –   
                                                                                                                                           
a)  To review the concepts of cross over, recombination,  and test cross.                                                     
b)  To begin the mRNA activity – transcription

1: Review of the last 2 free response questions on the classwork Friday 

      AP Biology – Genetic Questions Practice.pdf                                                                                              View Download     
                                                                                                                                                                                            AP Biology – Genetic Questions Practice key.pdf                                                                                    View Download   

Make sure you keep this worksheet when you study for the Genetics Test.  You may see. these problems again.            

___________________

12/13 – Monday’s Homework: –

1. Please complete the Gene to Protein Form 1 using your textbook.

2. Continue working on Lab 1. It is due Wednesday!

 
1: Gene to Protein Form 1  :

End of Monday..

 

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

12/14 – Tuesday –  A Day – 

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                          
a)  To Review the Early Experiments that led to the discovery of DNA as the heritable                    molecule.       
                                                                                                                                                                                                             b)  To begin the mRNA activity.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

1. To review the DNA – early experiments form that was passed out yesterday.

          a) Griffen Experiment

          b) Avery, McCarty, Macleod

          c) Hershey – Chase

          d) Erwin Chargaff (Rules)

 2. Begin the RNA activity:
 

 

Virus:

         
                                                                           

Chapter 16 – Early DNA experiments 

Coronavirus – SARs – COV – 2 :

Coronavirus – SARs – COV – 2 :  RNA virus – how is infects

Coronavirus – SARs – COV – 2 :  RNA virus – how is infects

mRNA activity:

mRNA activity begins – build DNA template strand. I have listed the entire set of instructions to begin the  
                                              activity. 
 
You may need the digital file to see if your strand is correct!  You are acting like a CRISPER/Cas- 9 enzyme cutting and adding DNA. 
 

mRNA activity student copy .pdf                                                                                        View Download 

 
Please Follow the Instructions below to complete the mRNA activity: Todays work
 
1. Complete the Template strand of the DNA by writing the correct complimentary code below the coding strand.
 
2.  Connect a single stranded blank strand that is almost as long your DNA strand. This will be eventually be your mRNA but for now it will be your pre-mRNA (or primary transcript)
This blank strand sheet that needs to be cut out and assembled are on the first desk next to the scissors and tape box.
 
3.  Mark on your DNA strand with a highlighter the promoter region and the termination sequence. If you forget what these small bits of code are for each then grab the text in Chapter 17 and look it up.  
 
The promoter region is telling where to start represents the INITIATION step.
 
*When you look for this code it is helpful to look and the coding strand (The printed code above the Template strand that you filled in).  The coding strand will reveal what the mRNA Strand will look like EXCEPT THAT thymine will be Uracil!
 
4.  Lay your blank RNA strand along the Template Strand (that you filled out) and start making the RNA primary transcript from 15 or so UTR’s  downstream from your promoter region.  It must be in front of the start CODON: AUG which will look like ATG on the Coding strand!   So start coding the mRNA strand remembering to use Uracil instead of  THymine.  
 
Writing the code on the single strand mRNA is the ELONGATION step.
 
5. Keep coding until you complete the terminating sequence. At this point your primary transcript (pre-mRNA) will be detached from the Template Strand of the DNA. This is where RNA polymerase detaches from the template strand of the DNA.  
 
Stopping the code and detaching the pre-RNA is the TERMINATION step.
 
6.  Now you have to make your pre-RNA into the processed mRNA that can leave the nucleus of a eukaryote cell and move into another area of the cell that will Translate the mRNA Codons into proteins.  
 
Alteration of the mRNA Ends
 
7. You must modify the ends of this pre-mRNA. You may have look up in the text (page 334) or look below to remember how the ends of the RNA are modified.  You may have to add some blank strands to the ends to make the caps.
This modification facilitates the export of the mRNA out of the nucleus, protects it from it being broken down by enzymes, and helps ribosomes to attach it for Translation.
 
RNA Splicing
 
8. On your pre-mRNA that has its end capped appropriately in step 7, use a highlighter to identify the EXONS.  The Exons are the triplet codons that are expressed.  In your packet you have the code for the entire gene including the start codon and stop codon.  So highlight  ONLY the Triplet CODON in the RNA strand that is in your packet or below.           
                                                                                                                                                                                                              The code will go in order but it will have many UTR’s (Untranslated REgions) that are not part of the code and these are INTRONS!!!!

After you have highlighted all of the EXONS Physically cut away all of the INTRON in between the start and stop codon and retape (splice) the RNA back together so that there is a continuous code of EXONS from start to stop.  At this point you are acting as snRNA (snurps) in a splicesome!

Your pre-mRNA IS NOW a mRNA and can leave the nucleus to begin Translation.

9.  Roll up your DNA and completed mRNA and place on top of your packet with group names and return this back to the lab area you picked up your work today

  _____________________

12/14 – Tuesday’s Homework: –

                                                                       

1. Please view the 2 video below on the CRISPER editing enzyme.
2. Please read the article below and then answer the questions in the form below:                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
Gene edited babies?  A Chinese researcher has declared that he has edited the first human babies using the CRISPR/Cas 9 system.
1st Article:
2nd  Article:
A simple guide to CRISPR, one of the biggest science stories of the decade: https://www.vox.com/2018/7/23/17594864/crispr-cas9-gene-editing
 
1: Gene Edited babies Form :

End of Monday..

 

Genome Editing with CRISPER-CAS9 :

Coronavirus – SARs – COV – 2 :

 

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

12/15 – Wednesday –  B Day 

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                          
a) To identify a Transcription Unit
b)  To identify the promoter region with its initiator sequence, and termination sequence.
c)  To identify Introns and Exons.
 

1. To review the CRISPER mechanism in bacteria that lead to today’s gene editing capabilities.

2. To continue with the RNA activity

a) view the RNA polymerase enzyme

b) Gene to Protein Presentation slides to review Transcription steps for the activity.

                                                                                                                                   RNA polymerase II :  12 subunits = Structure?                                                                            

Transcription Unit:  
sematic scholar

Gene to Protein Presentation:

mRNA activity:

mRNA activity begins – build DNA template strand. I have listed the entire set of instructions to begin the  
                                              activity. 
 
You may need the digital file to see if your strand is correct!  You are acting like a CRISPER/Cas- 9 enzyme cutting and adding DNA. 
 

mRNA activity student copy .pdf                                                                                        View Download 

 
Please Follow the Instructions below to complete the mRNA activity: Todays work
 
1. Complete the Template strand of the DNA by writing the correct complimentary code below the coding strand.
 
2.  Connect a single stranded blank strand that is almost as long your DNA strand. This will be eventually be your mRNA but for now it will be your pre-mRNA (or primary transcript)
This blank strand sheet that needs to be cut out and assembled are on the first desk next to the scissors and tape box.
 
3.  Mark on your DNA strand with a highlighter the promoter region and the termination sequence. If you forget what these small bits of code are for each then grab the text in Chapter 17 and look it up.  
 
The promoter region is telling where to start represents the INITIATION step.
 
*When you look for this code it is helpful to look and the coding strand (The printed code above the Template strand that you filled in).  The coding strand will reveal what the mRNA Strand will look like EXCEPT THAT thymine will be Uracil!
 
4.  Lay your blank RNA strand along the Template Strand (that you filled out) and start making the RNA primary transcript from 15 or so UTR’s  downstream from your promoter region.  It must be in front of the start CODON: AUG which will look like ATG on the Coding strand!   So start coding the mRNA strand remembering to use Uracil instead of  THymine.  
 
Writing the code on the single strand mRNA is the ELONGATION step.
 
5. Keep coding until you complete the terminating sequence. At this point your primary transcript (pre-mRNA) will be detached from the Template Strand of the DNA. This is where RNA polymerase detaches from the template strand of the DNA.  
 
Stopping the code and detaching the pre-RNA is the TERMINATION step.
 
6.  Now you have to make your pre-RNA into the processed mRNA that can leave the nucleus of a eukaryote cell and move into another area of the cell that will Translate the mRNA Codons into proteins.  
 
Alteration of the mRNA Ends
 
7. You must modify the ends of this pre-mRNA. You may have look up in the text (page 334) or look below to remember how the ends of the RNA are modified.  You may have to add some blank strands to the ends to make the caps.
This modification facilitates the export of the mRNA out of the nucleus, protects it from it being broken down by enzymes, and helps ribosomes to attach it for Translation.
 
RNA Splicing
 
8. On your pre-mRNA that has its end capped appropriately in step 7, use a highlighter to identify the EXONS.  The Exons are the triplet codons that are expressed.  In your packet you have the code for the entire gene including the start codon and stop codon.  So highlight  ONLY the Triplet CODON in the RNA strand that is in your packet or below.           
                                                                                                                                                                                                              The code will go in order but it will have many UTR’s (Untranslated REgions) that are not part of the code and these are INTRONS!!!!

After you have highlighted all of the EXONS Physically cut away all of the INTRON in between the start and stop codon and retape (splice) the RNA back together so that there is a continuous code of EXONS from start to stop.  At this point you are acting as snRNA (snurps) in a splicesome!

Your pre-mRNA IS NOW a mRNA and can leave the nucleus to begin Translation.

9.  Roll up your DNA and completed mRNA and place on top of your packet with group names and return this back to the lab area you picked up your work today

 _____________________

12/15 – Wednesday’s Homework: –

                                                                       

1. Please use your textbook to complete Gene To Protein Form 2 – 21-22

 

 
1: Gene to Protein Form 2 :

End of Wednesday…

 

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

12/16 – Thursday –  A Day 

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                          
a)  To Describe the actions of RNA Polymerase II
b)  To identify the Exons and Introns regions in a Eukaryotic primary Transcript.
C)   To Identify the modified capped ends of the completed mRNA and understand their             purpose.                                                                                                                                                                                                        
1.  View the animation of Transcription and Translation. Discuss prokaryote and Eukaryote                          differences. 
 
     Link to the Transcription and Translation video: https://youtu.be/8nQH0GqFn6k                                           Link to another video I played 2 weeks ago:  https://youtu.be/2zAGAmTkZNY
                                                                                                                                                                                                    2.  2. Complete the mRNA activity!

mRNA activity:

 

mRNA activity student copy .pdf                                                                                        View Download 

 
Please Follow the Instructions below to complete the mRNA activity: Todays work
 
1. Complete the Template strand of the DNA by writing the correct complimentary code below the coding strand.
 
2.  Connect a single stranded blank strand that is almost as long your DNA strand. This will be eventually be your mRNA but for now it will be your pre-mRNA (or primary transcript)
This blank strand sheet that needs to be cut out and assembled are on the first desk next to the scissors and tape box.
 
3.  Mark on your DNA strand with a highlighter the promoter region and the termination sequence. If you forget what these small bits of code are for each then grab the text in Chapter 17 and look it up.  
 
The promoter region is telling where to start represents the INITIATION step.
 
*When you look for this code it is helpful to look and the coding strand (The printed code above the Template strand that you filled in).  The coding strand will reveal what the mRNA Strand will look like EXCEPT THAT thymine will be Uracil!
 
4.  Lay your blank RNA strand along the Template Strand (that you filled out) and start making the RNA primary transcript from 15 or so UTR’s  downstream from your promoter region.  It must be in front of the start CODON: AUG which will look like ATG on the Coding strand!   So start coding the mRNA strand remembering to use Uracil instead of  THymine.  
 
Writing the code on the single strand mRNA is the ELONGATION step.
 
5. Keep coding until you complete the terminating sequence. At this point your primary transcript (pre-mRNA) will be detached from the Template Strand of the DNA. This is where RNA polymerase detaches from the template strand of the DNA.  
 
Stopping the code and detaching the pre-RNA is the TERMINATION step.
 
6.  Now you have to make your pre-RNA into the processed mRNA that can leave the nucleus of a eukaryote cell and move into another area of the cell that will Translate the mRNA Codons into proteins.  
 
Alteration of the mRNA Ends
 
7. You must modify the ends of this pre-mRNA. You may have look up in the text (page 334) or look below to remember how the ends of the RNA are modified.  You may have to add some blank strands to the ends to make the caps.
This modification facilitates the export of the mRNA out of the nucleus, protects it from it being broken down by enzymes, and helps ribosomes to attach it for Translation.
 
RNA Splicing
 
8. On your pre-mRNA that has its end capped appropriately in step 7, use a highlighter to identify the EXONS.  The Exons are the triplet codons that are expressed.  In your packet you have the code for the entire gene including the start codon and stop codon.  So highlight  ONLY the Triplet CODON in the RNA strand that is in your packet or below.           
                                                                                                                                                                                                              The code will go in order but it will have many UTR’s (Untranslated REgions) that are not part of the code and these are INTRONS!!!!

After you have highlighted all of the EXONS Physically cut away all of the INTRON in between the start and stop codon and retape (splice) the RNA back together so that there is a continuous code of EXONS from start to stop.  At this point you are acting as snRNA (snurps) in a splicesome!

Your pre-mRNA IS NOW a mRNA and can leave the nucleus to begin Translation.

9.  Roll up your DNA and completed mRNA and place on top of your packet with group names and return this back to the lab area you picked up your work today

_____________________

12/17 – Thursday’s Homework: –

                                                                       

1. Please complete the  Gene to Protein DRAW assignment – 

 
YOU have a Google Presentation that has been emailed to you (or the link was email).  Please follow the directions which are also in the Google presentation:
 

Please draw diagrams that illustrate the following stages of Translation:

1. The mRNA interacts with the rRNA of the ribosome to initiate translation at the start codon.

2. The sequence of nucleotides on the mRNA is read in triplets called codons.

3. tRNA brings the correct amino acid to the correct place on the mRNA.

4. The amino acid is transferred to the growing peptide chain.

5. The process continues along the mRNA until a stop codon is reached

6. The process terminates by the release of the newly synthesized peptide/protein.

7. Make sure that you include the P, A, and E sites

Draw these diagrams on separate piece of paper and then take a picture using your computer and paste it into this Google Presentation.  You can accomplish this many ways but I need you to draw diagrams that illustrate the list above. MAKE SURE YOU ANNOTATE YOUR Diagrams. Use the text page 338 – 343 or the videos I posted that may help with the visuals.

These videos posted above and below might be helpful:

Protein Synthesis: Teachers Pet

From DNA to protein – 3D

From DNA to Protein 2:

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

12/18 – Friday –   B Day 

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                          
a)  To describe the steps in translation.                                                                                                                                                                        

1. Note-taking of Transcription and Translation. 

2.  View the animation of Transcription and Translation. Discuss prokaryote and Eukaryote  differences. 
                             Link to the Transcription and Translation video: https://youtu.be/8nQH0GqFn6k                                       Link to another video I played 2 weeks ago:  https://youtu.be/2zAGAmTkZNY
 
3. Complete the transcription activity.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

     

 _____________________

12/18 – Friday’s Homework: –

                                                                       

1. Please complete the form below on chapter 17.

 
1: Gene to Protein Hw Quiz  Form :

 

End of Week 5!