Q2 – Week 9 – 1/17 – 1/21
1/17 – Monday. Martin Luther King Jr Day –
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal.”
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia, the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today!
I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of “interposition” and “nullification” — one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.
I have a dream today!
1/18 – Tuesday – A Day –
1/18 – Tuesday’s Homework: –
*Connections – We are beginning are Energy Unit but we are really just picking up where we left off in genetics. We left off in genetics where we observed anabolic (Trp Operon) and catabolic (Lac Operon) pathways in E. Coli regulated by repressor allosteric proteins from upstream “switches” or regulatory genes. Gene regulation that controls the transcription and thus the expression of the genes is often regulated by Inducers or Repressors that are tied to the concentration of compounds that obtained from our environment. That is our genes interact with our environment!!! Through Natural Selection we have adapted to become very efficient in our use of energy and resources available. All life requires a constant supply of energy and it is absolutely advantageous for all organisms from simple prokaryotes like bacteria (E. Coli) or eukaryotes (US!) to use available energy efficiently. In the case of the Lac Operon in the E. Coli it would not be efficient use of energy and resources to transcribe and translate enzymes that breakdown lactose if there is no lactose in our cells. That energy and resources are available for other life sustaining processes if there is no lactose present and thus there is a clear selective pressure for organisms to maximize efficient use of Energy. Without our adaption to harness Energy and use it efficiently there can not be DNA duplication in the S phase of Interphase of meiosis or mitosis which we started talking about this summer.
1 Propane molecule (C3H8) reacts with 5 oxygen molecules (O2) ——> to make 3 carbon dioxide molecules (CO2) and 4 water molecules (H2O)
End of Tuesday!
1/19 – Wednesday – B Day
b) To define spontaneity, free energy, entropy in thermodynamics.
1. Complete Part 2 of the test. If you need more time please come after school.
2. Thermodynamics (in class) begins!
| From today’s class discussion with the burning of paper:
Spontaneous = dispersion (spreading out) of energy
= Increase in entropy
concentrated source of energy —-> less concentrated source
example: paper burning
1/18 – Wednesday’s Homework: –
2CH3OH(l) + 3O2(g) →. 2CO2(g) + 4H2O(g) + Energy Alcohol Oxygen carbon dioxide water
(l) = liquid, (g) = gas
Notice the Coefficients that balance the reaction due to the Law of Conservation of Mass. We have the same number of Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), and Oxygen (O) atoms on both sides. This is chemical change due to the fact that there are new substances (compounds) produced which means bond have been broken and reformed.
Notice that initially 3 gas molecules (3O2(g)) are used with 2 liquid molecules .
The products (2CO2(g) + 4H2O(g) ) are the chemicals that are on the right side and they include 6 gases. So 3 gas molecules and 2 liquid molecules become 6 gas molecules .
The entropy is increasing and the chemical reaction is spontaneous.
1. melting the white solid: KClO3(s) + heat —> KClO3(l)
2. hot liquid reacts: 2KClO3(l) + heat —> 2 KCl(s) + 3 O2(g)
3. Sucrose (table sugar in gummi bear reacts with oxygen:
C12H22O11 + 35/2 O2 —> 12CO2 + 11H2O + heat (5635 kJ) sucrose
End of Wednesday!
1/20 – Thursday – A Day
1. Review the class notes.
1/20 -Thursday’s Homework: –
of Chapter 8 in the text, and review the notes below to answer the form below.
End of THursday!
1/21 – Friday – B Day
1. A review of the Coupled Gummi Bear Demo Diagram to review the flow of Free Energy from a spontaneous process to DRIVE a non-spontaneous process. Notice the loss of energy in every step!
IF the spontaneous process IS SPONTANEOUS ENOUGH TO OVERCOME THE non-spontaneous process then overall process will occur DUE TO AN OVERALL POSITIVE change in entropy of the universe.
Another way to say this is, “Is the Spontaneous Process enough OR is ΔG a large enough negative value to overcome the positive ΔG of the non-spontaneous process??
2. We will start by determining the values of ΔS, ΔG, and ΔH values from the whoosh bottle demonstration that I will do live. Also plot a potential energy diagram! catalyst effect!
5. A cool uplifting Reaction demo: Started the Back side of last nights homework. Gibbs free Energy and Entropy.pdf View Download
Spontaneity of a balloon with liquid nitrogen: (anyone have a large bill?)
The Cool and “up lifting demo!!”:
1/21 -Weekend’s Homework: –
1. Please complete the backside of last nights worksheet which is based on today’s Cool Uplifting demo. Please review with the key below, Especially the diagrams!
2. Please view the Thermodynamic signs lecture below.
3. Complete the Thermodynamic Signs Form below: ( You can have 3 submissions)
aminoacyl-trna link: for next week (this id for Mr. Grodski only <iframe width=”560″ height=”315″ src=”https://www.youtube.com/embed/-NhqjgIx1_w” title=”YouTube video player” frameborder=”0″ allow=”accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture” allowfullscreen></iframe>
2: Thermodynamics Signs Form Lecture
End of week 9!