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Q3 – Week 2 – 2/7 – 2/11

                                                                                                                                   Jump to:  Tuesday,   Wednesday,  Thursday,  Friday                                                                                                                                   ___________________________________________________________

2/7 – Monday  –   B Day – 

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                        
a)  To compare and contrast Photosystem I and Photosystem II
b)  To begin our discussion of the light theories.

 

 

1: Photosystem II vs Photosystem 1 : Photosynthesis diagram overview.pdf
(really worked)
 
2. Calvin Cycle reviewed again -on board, breaking down the three steps, and total amount of NADPH and ATP needed for 6 turns (glucose).  Also reviewed how many G3P’s are needed for regeneration per one G3P.
 
3: Products of Photosynthesis – starch vs. cellulose: (presentation)

 

This a diagram of the chloroplast. Our Third organelle that we will discuss that eukaryotes can have (nucleus, mitochondria, and now chloroplast).

There are two separate but connected processes, the light reactions, and the dark reactions (that do not need light), which is also referred to the Calvin Cycle.

 

                           

Cellulose vs. Starch (products of from G3P’s!):

      ____________________

2/7 – Monday’s Homework: –                                                                                      

 
We are working with the Light Reactions which includes the Photo Phosphorylation that occurs inside the thylakoid.   Using certain wavelengths of light (colors) of light, electrons are excited to pull protons inside the thylakoid to create a proton motor force that makes ATP and High Energy electrons ( carried by NADP+  used to reduce the carbon that is being reduced in the Calvin Cycle in the the Stroma.
 
1. Please make another submission to last nights form if needed.
 
2. Please complete the form based on the diagrams that we have been working on in class.
 

 


 
2:  Photosynthesis Form :

End of Monday!

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2/8 – Tuesday –  A  Day – 

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                          

a)  To Review the positive and negative theories of light.

b)  To identify wavelength and frequency as part of the electromagnetic spectrum
                                                                                                                                                                                  c)  To write electron configurations and demonstrate electron transitions in absorbtion            and emission.
 
1:  Additive and Negative light theory/photoelectric effect – photons
2:  Sunset demo/prism
3:  Bohr transitions Flash link in presentation – 
 
4:  Bright line spectrum-
 
Electron configurations and Photosynthesis.pdf
View Download
 
Electron configurations and Photosynthesis key.pdf
View Download
                                                                                                            

                                                                                                                                                                                    

Light Theories into the Bohr Model:

    _____________________

2/8 – Tuesday’s Homework: –

1:  Please watch the lecture: 

AP Biology – Electron configuration and excitation in Photosynthesis 
 
2. And Complete the worksheet that was given out in class today which is posted below and review with key.
 
Electron configurations and Photosynthesis.pdf
View Download
 
Electron configurations and Photosynthesis key.pdf
View Download

   

PhotosynthesisElectron configuration and excitation in Photosynthesis:

Lewis Diagrams Review if you need more help!

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2/9 – Wednesday –  B Day 

 
Main focus –                                                                                                                                                          
a) To review electron configurations and energy levels of the electrons in atoms from the concepts of the homework.

b) To review photosystem I and II and the p 680 and p 700 values.

c) To compare and contrast Emission Spectrum and Absorption Spectrum.

 

1. Review Homework concept of electron configuration. Core electrons vs. Valance electrons

a) Mr. Stable vs. Mr. Unstable

2. Review the photosystems (p values) from the diagram

3. Electron transitions for the Bright line Spectrum from Flash to tie in p680 and p700.

a) Energy absorbed and energy emitted transitions

4. Bright lIght demo

5. Absorption activity with spectrophotometers – notice the wavelengths

spectrophotometry activity – The spectrophotometer shoots a white light (full spectrum of all photons) through the sample in the cuvette. The detector measures what is missing. Missing photons are absorbed (electrons transition away from the nucleus) by the pigment and the amount of missing photons or absorbed photons is measured by the height of the peak.

 

Today’s Notes:

Electrons that are core are closer to the nucleus = STABLE = low energy shells
            These electrons “feel” the nucleus more because they ARE CLOSER to the positive protons in the nucleus that attract the oppositely charged negative electrons. (Like charges repel).
 
        Electrons that are valence are farther away from nucleus = Unstable = high energy shell
These electrons “feel” the nucleus less  because they ARE FARTHER to the positive protons in the nucleus that attract the oppositely charged negative electrons. (Like charges repel).

 

The Hydrogen Absorption Spectrum is the result of the electrons absorbing energy and moving away from the nucleus while the Hydrogen Emission Spectrum is the result of electrons emitting energy as they move back to the nucleus.

 

Light Theories into the Bohr Model:

_____________________

2/9- Wednesday’s Homework: –

 
1. Please view and read through the presentation below (slides 24 – till the end).
2. Watch the 2 video’s on the early atmosphere of the earth
3. Complete the True and False form on the presentation

                                                                                      

1:  Presentation (slides 24 – till the end)

Evolution and Oxygen:

History of Earth and the Early Atmosphere:

 
3:  Photosynthesis Form :

End of Monday!

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2/10 – Thursday –  A Day 

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                          
a)  To investigate the pigments in the photosystems through chromatography and spectrophotometry.
                                                                                                                                                                                     
1. Review last nights Form  
 
2. We will begin the Photosynthesis lab by performing chromatography to separate the pigments of the spinach leaves that are in the photosystems.  
 
Photosynthesis Lab part A:
Separating the pigments in the photosystem II an I
Chromatography/spectrophotometry
*USE Chromatography solvent  9:1 (90% Petroleum Ether, 10% actetone) WARDS
                             
Photosynthesis pigments Lab – complete data collection
 
Photosynthesis Lab – Grodski.pdf
View Download
 
Chromatography Demo:
 
  

Photosynthesis Lab:

 This Lab will be a SLIDE – UP!

**Get a good start on this!! IT is not expected to be done by tomorrow.  
*Remember the purpose to identify the pigments in the photosystems that help capture photons of light from the sun to excite electrons to higher energy states. Use you lab packet to help.
You must have the following:
 
You are to do this in Google Slides like we did for the Sordari Firmicola Lab EXCEPT everone will be doing their own slide up.  
 
1. Title Slide
2. Background slide(s) – Do no make these slide all words or all pictures.  Use this presentation
                                                 format to use more visuals but with explanations.  Be creative, using the   
                                                 concepts of the scientific method. 
 
3. Objectives, Question, and Hypothesis – There is no real hypothesis in this lab.
 
There are important objectives:
 
1.  Identify as many of the pigments in the photosystems are possible.  The major players are
 
                            Carotene –
                            Xanthophyll –
                            Chlorophyll a –
                            Chlorophyll b –
                       a) You will Separate and identify the pigments in the spinach.
                          You will need to identify each band in the chromatograph by their 
                         particular absorption spectrum, that when added together looks like the Total  
                         Pigments absorption spectrum that we did earlier in the week (in slide 9 ) of my         
                         presentation.
                    
                       b)  Using the Appendix A in your lab OR ANY OTHER RESOURCES and your lab file posted below you can           
                          identify the pigment that was isolated in each band, based on absorption peaks.
 
2.  Procedure  – comprehensive list of steps so that anyone can follow.
 
3.  Materials- 
 
4. Data – Graphs from the logger pro files that are posted above WITH YOUR pictures of YOUR chromatograph.
                 I want to see you identify each line on the image posted above for each pigment you separated.
 
                Please use the lab packet given out or the internet to find graphs from spectrophotometers to help           
                identify each pigment.
 
5.  Results – 
 
6. Conclusion –  Do not be vague but to the point.  
Explain your results.  Make a leap. Fully explain any errors or limitations of the lab.
 
7.  SOURCES

 _____________________

2/10 -Thursday’s Homework: –

   

1. NO HOMEWORK TONIGHT!!! 🙂 

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2/11 – Friday – A Day

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                          
a)  To complete the data collection of the pigments for photosynthesis lab.
b)  To begin the write-up of the lab.

 

Photosynthesis Lab part A:
Separating the pigments in the photosystem II an I
Chromatography/spectrophotometry
*USE Chromatography solvent  9:1 (90% Petroleum Ether, 10% actetone) WARDS 
 
1.  Make 2 more chromatographs of the pigments from spinach.
  
2.  Cut out the separated layers.
3. Dip the layers in ethanol in a marked cuvette.                                                                                                          4. Obtain the absorption spectrum  for each of the three pigments.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Here is an image of the all of the pigments. (If you put your three pigments together). 

Photosynthesis Lab:

   ____________________

1/28 -Weekend’s Homework: –

1.  Complete the write-up of the lab using the requirements posted below in the shared presentation that will be sent to you.  You are doing it as a group!  Make sure you do let the LVP’s off the hook!

 This Lab will be a SLIDE – UP!

**Get a good start on this!! IT is not expected to be done by tomorrow.  
*Remember the purpose to identify the pigments in the photosystems that help capture photons of light from the sun to excite electrons to higher energy states. Use you lab packet to help.
You must have the following:
 
You are to do this in Google Slides like we did for the Sordari Firmicola Lab EXCEPT everone will be doing their own slide up.  
 
1. Title Slide
2. Background slide(s) – Do no make these slide all words or all pictures.  Use this presentation
                                                 format to use more visuals but with explanations.  Be creative, using the   
                                                 concepts of the scientific method. 
 
3. Objectives, Question, and Hypothesis – There is no real hypothesis in this lab.
 
There are important objectives:
 
1.  Identify as many of the pigments in the photosystems are possible.  The major players are
 
                            Carotene –
                            Xanthophyll –
                            Chlorophyll a –
                            Chlorophyll b –
                       a) You will Separate and identify the pigments in the spinach.
                          You will need to identify each band in the chromatograph by their 
                         particular absorption spectrum, that when added together looks like the Total  
                         Pigments absorption spectrum that we did earlier in the week (in slide 9 ) of my         
                         presentation.
                    
                       b)  Using the Appendix A in your lab OR ANY OTHER RESOURCES and your lab file posted below you can           
                          identify the pigment that was isolated in each band, based on absorption peaks.
 
2.  Procedure  – comprehensive list of steps so that anyone can follow.
 
3.  Materials- 
 
4. Data – Graphs from the logger pro files that are posted above WITH YOUR pictures of YOUR chromatograph.
                 I want to see you identify each line on the image posted above for each pigment you separated.
 
                Please use the lab packet given out or the internet to find graphs from spectrophotometers to help           
                identify each pigment.
 
5.  Results – 
 
6. Conclusion –  Do not be vague but to the point.  
Explain your results.  Make a leap. Fully explain any errors or limitations of the lab.
 
7.  SOURCES