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Q3 – Week 7 – 3/21 – 3/25

                                                                                                                                   Jump to:  Tuesday,   Wednesday,  Thursday,  Friday ___________________________________________________________

3/21 – Monday  –    A Day – 

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                         
a)  To REVIEW the type types of the adaptive immunity, humoral and cell mediated.
 
b)  To identify the factors that contribute to the primary and secondary response.

c)  To identify the colonal selection of B cells and T cells.

 
1. Innate (including the inflammatory response) vs Adaptive
2. Leukocytes vs. Lymphocytes
3. Lymphatic system
4. Colonal selection
 
Notes – on the immune system – non – adaptive (innate) vs. adaptive   
 
immune system review – What connects innate to adaptive?? 
Note taking – 
size of animal = metabolism = Surface to Volume ratio.
checking for health of cells – MHC – I
inflammatory response, fever,
 
                                                     Innate                                    vs                                            Adaptive
                                        1st Response                                                                   Secondary Response
                                                Fast                                                                                         Slower
                   leukocytes —–Professional antigen Presenting Cell—————>     Lymphocytes        

 

 

The Immune System – 

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3/21 – Monday Homework: –

 
1.   Please complete the AP Practice Questions (Cell Communications and Immunity) and put the MC questions in the Form that will be posted below.
You will have 3 submissions to this form.  
 
AP Practice Questions – Cell Communication and Immunity.pdf  
 
2. Please complete the 2 questions (frq) on the packet.  You will not be entering these answers. We will review these answers tomorrow.                                                                        

 
1: AP Practice Questions – Cell Communication and Immunity:

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3/22 – Tuesday –  B  Day – 

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                          

a)  To explain how passive immunity is a selective advantage in mammals.

b)  To review the rH factor.
                                                                                                                                                                                  
1.  Review the MC and FRQ of the homework.
 
Cell communication and Immunity AP practice questions Key  
                                                                                                                     

2. Blood types, primary and secondary response, passive immunity, rh factor

 

 

3.  Review the autism vaccination study

REtracted autism vaccination study.pdf
View Download
               

GET Vaccinated!!! There are parents out there who are putting their children at risk for diseases that we have DEFEATED because of the AWFUL Redacted study above!

                             

 

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3/22 – Tuesday’s Homework: –

1. Please complete the questions in the form below based on chapter 46.  

 
1: Immunity form 3 – Multiple choice questions from chapter 46

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3/23 – Wednesday –  A Day 

 
Main focus –                                                                                                                                                          
a) To identify the parts of a neuron

b) To introduce the different parts of an Action Potential.

1:  Neurons /  Stimulus Response / Resting Potential / Action Potential

                           

Nervous System:

 

 

2: -took notes on action potential using diagram:
 
Action potential Diagram clean.pdf
View Download
 
 
    a) The sodium/potassium pump, along with many permanent open K+ channel proteins and the lower numbered of permanent open Nachannel proteins create the resting potential. The electrical potential counterbalances chemical gradients which maintains the resting potential that is about -60 millivolts.  This negative charged intracellular creates the high potential of charge that will create the voltage to push an electrical signal through the nerve cell.
 
    b) We diagramed how the transmembrane proteins that are specific for K+ and Na+ differ in the dendritic area to detect stimuli and how voltage gated channel proteins appear starting at the axon hillock.  The increase in positive ions enter the cell body during stimulus at the dendritic end of the neuron and IF that “graded potential”  has large enough (exceeds the threshold) depolarization (increase of positive charge inside of the neuron) an action potential occurs (from Navoltage gated channel proteins) that begins at the Axon Hillock and extends through the entire axon to the terminal end.  The positive ions that flow in from gated Nachannels when a neuron is stimulated at its dendrites must produce a depolarizing effect that is enough to reach the axon hillock and open the gated Nachannels.  If the stimulus does not depolarize the extra cellular cell body enough then the neuron does not produce an action potential.  This called an all or none response.
 
   c) The signal moves in one way because the voltage gated protein channel open due to a threshold voltage that is met that denatures the protein in a way that opens the channel BUT when that voltage gets too positive it denatures further to a point where the Na+ voltage gate closes very fast.  This quickly opening and then quickly closing voltage gated protein prevents a backflow and keeps the action potential moving forward in one direction from the dendrites through the axon to the terminal end.
Now once action potential starts from the opening of the gated voltage Na+ channels the Na+ FLOWS in quickly because of the concentration gradient created by the Na/K pump AND due to the electrical potentail created (negative charge that is inside the nerve. This is the electrical pulse!

The Na+ channels open fast and close fast but gated K+ open slower and close slower. K+ voltage protein channels are made of different amino acids and thus require a greater depolarization to create a allosteric change in folded protein that will open pores for K+ to flow out!

Remember that as Naflows in, the charge of the inside of the nerve becomes less negative and this allows K+ to leave much easier.  Kleaves through the permanent open channel proteins BUT voltage gated proteins that are at the axon hillock and beyond will open to speed up the loss of K+ out of the cell which helps the inside of the nerve to regain the resting potential.  The Na needs to pumped out by the Na/K pump while the K+ is pumped back in. This occurs in the refractory period.

Notice in the diagram above how the action potential moves forward and how the nerve regains “resting potential ” to get ready for another action potential signal.
 
All of this is due to the different selective permeability of the transmembrane proteins, the sodium/potassium pump and Dissolved ions in the water environment or organisms.
 
We need dissolved ions (called electrolytes because they help conduct electricity in water) to propagate action potentials OR in simpler terms Are Needed to make our nervous system work!
  

1: Voltage gated sodium channel:

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3/23 – Wednesday’s Homework: –

 
1. Please use your textbook to complete the Action Potential Form 1 – 21-22
 
 
1: Action Potential form

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3/24 – Thursday –  B Day 

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                          
a)  To identify the the individual components of the Action Potential Graph in terms of ion movement through voltage gated ion channel proteins.
 
b)  chemical gradient, electrical gradient, membrane potential, Depolarization, repolarization, Hyperpolarization (thanks Zoey!).
 
1:  Neurons /  Stimulus Response / Resting Potential / Action Potential

 

2. Take a FRQ (2 question – 14 points):

2019 AP Biology – FRQ – 1,4.pdf                                                                                                                                                View Download

2019 AP Biology Scoring Guidelines 1,4.pdf                                                                                                                      View Download 
2019 AP Biology Free Response – Mr. Grodski solutions 1,4.pdf

                         

Nervous System:

 

 

2: -took notes on action potential using diagram:
 
Action potential Diagram clean.pdf
View Download                       
 

1: Voltage gated sodium channel:

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3/24 -Thursday’s Homework: –

1. No homework Thursday’s Continues!!  

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3/25 – Friday – A Day

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                          
a)  To Identify how Myelin Sheaths contribute to speed of action potentials
b)  To describe how electrolytes contribute to action potentials.

 

1. REVIEW of FRQ taken in class Yesterday:

 
2019 AP Biology Scoring Guidelines 1,4.pdf                                                                                                                      View Download 
 
2019 AP Biology Free Response – Mr. Grodski solutions 1,4.pdf
 
2:  Conductivity Demo – Free moving charges create an electrical potential (Voltage!) 
       
We saw that an electrical conductivity requires Free Moving Charges. These free moving charged particles are electrons in metals but in solutions like biological organisms need free moving charge ions that come from dissolved salts. 
 
The Jennifer Strange Story:
 
 
3:  Reflex acs/ Motor units/ explanation of moving charge as electrical energy/epilepsy and mutations of voltage channels.
 
4:  Myelin Sheaths – Schwann Cells – How it increases speed of signal for small diameter axons that we ha
 
5:  Motor Neuron, Neuromuscular Junction, skeletal muscle
Myelin Sheaths – Schwann Cells :
 

 

   

Dissolving of a salt (electrolyte) : Famous Boyfriend – Famous Girlfriend

Electrolyte Demo:

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3/25 – Weekend Homework: –

1:  Please use the video’s below to complete the form.

TED TALK  : What is so special about the human brain?

Khan Academy  : Myeilenation

 
1: Brain Form