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Q3 – Week 8 – 3/28 – 4/1

                                                                                                                                   Jump to:  Tuesday,   Wednesday,  Thursday,  Friday ___________________________________________________________

3/28 – Monday  –    B Day – 

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                         
a)  To explain how Myelin Sheaths help conduct an action potential for small neurons.
 
b)  To identify a motor neuron and the different components of a skeletal muscle

c)  To discuss how reflex arcs also increase action potential speed.

 

1. Reviewed the action potential graph —–> Myelin Sheaths – Schwann Cells – How it increases speed of signal for small diameter axons that we ha

 

 

Nervous System:

 

 

 
 
    a) The sodium/potassium pump, along with many permanent open K+ channel proteins and the lower numbered of permanent open Nachannel proteins create the resting potential. The electrical potential counterbalances chemical gradients which maintains the resting potential that is about -60 millivolts.  This negative charged intracellular creates the high potential of charge that will create the voltage to push an electrical signal through the nerve cell.
 
    b) We diagramed how the transmembrane proteins that are specific for K+ and Na+ differ in the dendritic area to detect stimuli and how voltage gated channel proteins appear starting at the axon hillock.  The increase in positive ions enter the cell body during stimulus at the dendritic end of the neuron and IF that “graded potential”  has large enough (exceeds the threshold) depolarization (increase of positive charge inside of the neuron) an action potential occurs (from Navoltage gated channel proteins) that begins at the Axon Hillock and extends through the entire axon to the terminal end.  The positive ions that flow in from gated Nachannels when a neuron is stimulated at its dendrites must produce a depolarizing effect that is enough to reach the axon hillock and open the gated Nachannels.  If the stimulus does not depolarize the extra cellular cell body enough then the neuron does not produce an action potential.  This called an all or none response.
 
   c) The signal moves in one way because the voltage gated protein channel open due to a threshold voltage that is met that denatures the protein in a way that opens the channel BUT when that voltage gets too positive it denatures further to a point where the Na+ voltage gate closes very fast.  This quickly opening and then quickly closing voltage gated protein prevents a backflow and keeps the action potential moving forward in one direction from the dendrites through the axon to the terminal end.
Now once action potential starts from the opening of the gated voltage Na+ channels the Na+ FLOWS in quickly because of the concentration gradient created by the Na/K pump AND due to the electrical potentail created (negative charge that is inside the nerve. This is the electrical pulse!

The Na+ channels open fast and close fast but gated K+ open slower and close slower. K+ voltage protein channels are made of different amino acids and thus require a greater depolarization to create a allosteric change in folded protein that will open pores for K+ to flow out!

Remember that as Naflows in, the charge of the inside of the nerve becomes less negative and this allows K+ to leave much easier.  Kleaves through the permanent open channel proteins BUT voltage gated proteins that are at the axon hillock and beyond will open to speed up the loss of K+ out of the cell which helps the inside of the nerve to regain the resting potential.  The Na needs to pumped out by the Na/K pump while the K+ is pumped back in. This occurs in the refractory period.

Notice in the diagram above how the action potential moves forward and how the nerve regains “resting potential ” to get ready for another action potential signal.
 
All of this is due to the different selective permeability of the transmembrane proteins, the sodium/potassium pump and Dissolved ions in the water environment or organisms.
 
We need dissolved ions (called electrolytes because they help conduct electricity in water) to propagate action potentials OR in simpler terms Are Needed to make our nervous system work!
  
2. Electrolyte Demo. 
 
3:  Reflex acs/ Motor units/ explanation of moving charge as electrical energy/epilepsy and mutations of voltage channels.
 
4:  Motor Neuron, Neuromuscular Junction, skeletal muscle
Myelin Sheaths – Schwann Cells :

 

 

 

 

__________________

3/28 – Monday Homework: –

 
1.   Please complete the #2 and #6 of 2019 FRQ of the AP Bio Test..     
 
2019 AP Bio FRQ question 2,6.pdf                                                                                                                  View Download
 
2019 AP Biology FRQ – Mr. Grodski solutions 2,6                                                                                                 View Download  
 
2019 AP Biology FRQ Solutions – College Board 2,6                                                                                            View Download                                                                  

_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3/29 – Tuesday –  A  Day – 

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                          

a)  To review the concepts of the neuromuscular junction.

b)  To view determine how skeletal muscle constracts
                                                                                                                                                                                
1.  Review the FRQ homework. 
 
2019 AP Biology FRQ – Mr. Grodski solutions 2,6                                                                                                 View Download  
 
2019 AP Biology FRQ Solutions – College Board 2,6                                                                                            View Download         
                                                                                                                  

2.  Complete the Nervous System presentation

    Neurotransmitters/ reflex arcs/Motor Neuron, Neuromuscular Junction, skeletal muscle:  Animal behaviors
   

 

 

           

Dissolving of a salt (electrolyte) : Famous Boyfriend – Famous Girlfriend

Electrolyte Demo:

____________________

3/29 – Tuesday’s Homework: –

1. Please complete the 2 (3 point) FRQ questions and review with the best key 😉 ! 

2019 AP Bio FRQ 7,8.pdf                                                                                                                                    View Download
 
2019 AP Biology FRQ 7,8 – Mr. Grodski solutions .pdf                                                                                               View Download  
 
2019 AP Biology FRQ Solutions 7,8- College Board-.pdf                                                                                           View Download           

 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3/30 – Wednesday –  B Day 

 
Main focus –                                                                                                                                                          
a) To predict the outcome of an experiment.

b) To design a lab experiment.

1:  Review of questions 7,8 of the 2019 FRQ: 

 

2019 AP Biology FRQ 7,8 – Mr. Grodski solutions .pdf                                                                                              View Download  
 
2019 AP Biology FRQ Solutions 7,8- College Board-.pdf                                                                                           View Download   

 

2.  Cell Membrane Lab –                           

Water potential Lab – 

Cell membrane procedure.:

   _____________________

Cell Membrane Lab –   
 
This Lab will be a slide – up and you can do it as a group.
 
*You must use all solutions in your lab to test the concepts of water potential.  Your experimental design is very important. I want to see how you used controls in your data and in your analysis.
 
4 solutions:   
 
 water  CaCl2  NaCl  Sucrose
   .1 Molar  .1 Molar  .1 Molar


*you will be making illustrations of your test along with calculated water potentials for the extra cellular fuid and the cytosol of the cell.  In these illustrations arrows must be used to demonstrate the Net flow of water (osmosis).

 
Graphs will be made of each test to illustrate how the tested cell’s mass changes comparatively with its control.
What does your data imply for your tests?  Was dialysis tubing permeable to the solute particles?  
 
Cell Membrane lab –  Informal Lab Requirements:
1.  Title
2.  Hypothesis (if the independent ..the dependent variable ….)
 
2a.  Discussion of controls – What controls are you using?  Why?  What environmental factors are you keeping       
        constant. positive or negative control!
3.  Data
 
    a) Diagrams of each test – Include water potential for the Cells and Extracellular fluid and the calculations               for each.  The diagrams must have arrows to show the net osmosis of water and label the type of     
              solution that the extracellular fluid is  respect to the cell.
 
     b) Data tables 
 
      c)  Graphs of each test (with the control).  Make a line of best fit (regression line) and include the equation 
           (y = mx + b). We are after the slope of the graph (change of mass / change of time).   The slope of the cell    
           tested will be compared to the slope of the control cell. You can use logger pro or excel to determine your   
          l ine of best fit (regression) to get your slope.
 
        We will use the premise that the greater the slope the greater the difference in water potential between the  cell and the                          extracellular fluid.
 
  4. ConclusionTie in  your hypothesis and analyze your data. Make a leap.  Think about how organisms osmoregulate                                  and what physical parts of the cell are responsible.
 
   5. Errors Analysis –    
 
How to determine the best fit line and Slope in Excel. 
 

 

 _____________________

3/30 – Wednesday’s Homework: –

 
1. No homework tonight!
 
 

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3/31 – Thursday –  A Day 

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                          
a)  To design a lab and collect data for the cell membrane lab.
 
 
1:  To design and complete the data collection of the cell membrane lab

 

2: -took notes on action potential using diagram:
 
Action potential Diagram clean.pdf
View Download                      

   _____________________

Cell Membrane Lab –   
 
This Lab will be a slide – up and you can do it as a group.
 
*You must use all solutions in your lab to test the concepts of water potential.  Your experimental design is very important. I want to see how you used controls in your data and in your analysis.
 
4 solutions:   
 
 water  CaCl2  NaCl  Sucrose
   .1 Molar  .1 Molar  .1 Molar


*you will be making illustrations of your test along with calculated water potentials for the extra cellular fuid and the cytosol of the cell.  In these illustrations arrows must be used to demonstrate the Net flow of water (osmosis).

 
Graphs will be made of each test to illustrate how the tested cell’s mass changes comparatively with its control.
What does your data imply for your tests?  Was dialysis tubing permeable to the solute particles?  
 
Cell Membrane lab –  Informal Lab Requirements:
1.  Title
2.  Hypothesis (if the independent ..the dependent variable ….)
 
2a.  Discussion of controls – What controls are you using?  Why?  What environmental factors are you keeping       
        constant. positive or negative control!
3.  Data
 
    a) Diagrams of each test – Include water potential for the Cells and Extracellular fluid and the calculations               for each.  The diagrams must have arrows to show the net osmosis of water and label the type of     
              solution that the extracellular fluid is  respect to the cell.
 
     b) Data tables 
 
      c)  Graphs of each test (with the control).  Make a line of best fit (regression line) and include the equation 
           (y = mx + b). We are after the slope of the graph (change of mass / change of time).   The slope of the cell    
           tested will be compared to the slope of the control cell. You can use logger pro or excel to determine your   
          l ine of best fit (regression) to get your slope.
 
        We will use the premise that the greater the slope the greater the difference in water potential between the  cell and the                          extracellular fluid.
 
  4. ConclusionTie in  your hypothesis and analyze your data. Make a leap.  Think about how organisms osmoregulate                                  and what physical parts of the cell are responsible.
 
   5. Errors Analysis –    
 
How to determine the best fit line and Slope in Excel. 
 

 

.  _____________________

3/24 -Thursday’s Homework: –

1. Work on your slide-up of the Cell Membrane  Lab.

       Please complete parts 1,2,3 (posted above).

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4/1 – Friday – A Day

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                          
a)  To create a line of best fit graph for the Cell membrane Lab
b)  To Interpret the Data

 

1. Review how to make an excel graph for our data.

2. Complete the Cell membrane write-up.

3. Begin the homework

Water potential Lab – 

___________________

4/1 – Weekend Homework: –

1:  Please complete question 1,2,3 FRQ of the 2018 administration of the test..

Give yourself 45 minutes.  

2018 AP Biology FRQ 1,2,3                                                                                                                                                       View Download   

2018 AP Biology Free Response Scoring Guidelines 1,2,3
View Download