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## Q1 : Week 3 – 9/13 – 9/17

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9/12 – Monday – A Day – 2/3a Lab, 4 single –                      Jump toMonday Homework

Main focus

a) To identify the voltage change in a voltaic cell due to Le Chatelier’s Principle with changes in the concentrations of ions in half cells, specifically when a precipitate is made or a common ion is added.

1. Review of the Daniell cell with 2 stresses in video posted this weekend.

Intro Voltaic Cells worksheet 2 – skills Key p.pdf

A) Dilution of an ion:  Adding water that will lower the molarity = ratio of amount of ions to volume of water
B) Adding a salt that causes a precipitate that lowers the molarity of an ion.– question 1: Intro Voltaic Cells
worksheet 2 – skills
C)  Adding a salt that provides a common ion.  – question 2:    Intro Voltaic Cells
worksheet 2 – skills

* B) and C) only have an effect on changing voltage or spontaneity of the forward direction of the redox reaction if the ion that is effected is in the overall reaction! For the Daniell cell is must be:

Zn0  (s)   +    Cu+2  —–>   Zn+2    +     Cu0

So only the Cu+2  or  Zn+2   are the ions and their concentration changes that can create a stress that will cause the reaction to shift (become more favorable).  If the ion is NOT COMMON to the overall reaction of the redox reaction (in the voltaic cell) then there will no effect on spontaneity or voltage.

What is also important is that the solid electrodes cannot be diluted or increased as they do not make solutions so we are only left with the (aq) ions that can be altered to CREATE A STRESS that will change the spontaneity of voltage of a voltaic or galvanic cell.

Positive volts = Favorable Pathway = Spontaneous = entropy of universe (∆S) increasing
(∆S) increasing= energy dispersed = obtain Free Energy (∆G) to do work (power our phones!)

2. Review of the AP problem that was also assigned this weekend.

Intro Voltaic Cells Worksheet 1 key pp.pdf

In question 2 my key does not do a great job in answering some questions..

2a) overall reaction with the greatest voltage:

2Al (s)                 →     2Al+3 (aq)   +    3e- 6e-              +1.66 volts

3Cu+2    +   2e 6e-    →   3Cu (s)                                     +0.34 Volts                                                         _______________________________________________

2Al (s)   +   3Cu+2   →   2Al+3 (aq)   +    3Cu (s)            E0 cell = 2.00 volts

2d) Explain why each salt (ionic compound) is not appropriate:

NaOH –> Although OHis soluble and thus produces free ions that will “maintain electrical neutrality”  it will cause a precipitate with the Cu+2 ion in the reduction cell that will lower the reactants causing a shift to the left that would lower the voltage due to Le Chatelier’s Principle

CuS —> This salt is not soluble (large positive and large negative charges) thus their would be NO FREE IONS  “to maintain electrical neutrality” and thus this choice of salt in the salt bridge would cause the voltage to remain at zero!

NaNO3 —-> This salt is soluble and thus will produce free ions “to maintain electrical neutrality” and will facilitate a positive voltage.  This salt was weak coulombic attractions due to each of the ions having a low charge density.

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Todays Notes: – Video of today’s demo posted below the notes

Revisit the Classroom Daniell cell and predict voltage by making the Zn+2 ions precipitate out with Na2CO3 being added to the Zn/Zn+2 half cell.

*By adding Na2CO3 I was really delivering CO3–2 ions to the oxidation half cell because Na2CO3 is soluble due to the group one ion (Na+) that has weak Coulombic attractions with the CO32 in the salt (ionic compound).

Na2CO3 (s)  →  2 Na(aq)   +  CO3-2 (aq)
carbonate ion
h
Then CO3-2 reacted with Zn+2 to form a precipitate, which takes  Zn+2 out of the solution.

Net ion reaction:    Zn+2 (aq)   +    CO3-2 (aq)    ZnCO3 (s) which is a precipitate = insoluble!

Why does the carbonate ion produce a precipitate with the zinc ion?

Coulombs Law!!!

Lowering the  Zn+2  will cause the overall reaction in the Daniell cell to “shift” Right or be move spontaneous in the forward direction increasing the voltage.

Zn0  (s)   +    Cu+2  —–>   Zn+2    +     Cu0
Stress:                                                             decreases
Response:                                     Shift —————–>

The forward reaction is now more favorable or spontaneous than the reverse thus
the voltage increases (becomes more positive)!

Daniell Cell – Le Chateliers Demo:  Today’s demo.

At 0:35 I add water to dilute the  Cu+2 into the reduction half cell.

At 1:33 of the video I add Na2CO3 (s) into the oxidation half cell.

At 0:35 I add water to dilute the  Cu+2

By adding water Cu+2 ion solution (molarity) decreased and thus the
Voltage Decreased!!!!   Explained in terms of LeChateliers Principle and Spontaneity!

Zn0  (s)   +    Cu+2  —–>   Zn+2    +     Cu0
Stress:                                      decreases
Response:                        <—————– Shift =  voltage drop!
(lowers spontaneity of forward reaction)            The reverse is now favored more than it was which LOWERS the forwards reactions
pathways or spontaneity, which results in lowering the voltage!
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2/3a Lab –

LAB Activity 1 – Making of batteries (voltaic or galvanic cell) – In this Lab each person will make a pair of voltaic cells that if successfully created will power a 3 volt transistor radio.

LAB 1 – Voltaic Cell.pdf

a) Made one voltaic cell and identifies anode, cathode and tested voltage.

Identified the spontaneous process with positive volts
wrote half reactions, identified ox and red agents.

b) Completed the diagram, conclusion questions, and reviewed errors for the                                            writing of the conclusion

&nbsp

Started answering questions 5, 6, 7, 8 from Lab:

question 6:  I should NOT have written that the Cu ions cannot pass through the dialysis tubing….

question 7:  What ions flowing can pass through the Dialysis Tubing (cellulose).

question 8:  What is fizzing – I will get to this the next lab period.

Error Analysis for the conclusion:

Chemical reactions that may have contributed:

Mg    +   HOH (water)   —–>  Mg+2  + 2OH   +   H2 (g)

Would these ions (Mg+2  + 2OH) form a precipitate with ions already present?  The color of the entire battery was bluish?                                                                             What does that say about movement of Cu+2 ions?

What factors were competing?  Based on the experimental voltage which factor dominated?

My video below illustrates the reaction occurring above (the fizzing or production of hydrogen gas).

Lab 1 fun:

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9/12 – Monday Homework: –

1:  Please Study for a 15 minute –  1 page Quiz the voltaic Cell for Tomorrow 9/13

Topics:

A) Labeling a complete voltaic cell:

1. Identify Anode and Cathode and their charges.
2. Determine the flow of electrons.
3. Label all ions in half cells (oxidation and reduction areas) AND in Salt Bridge.
4. Movement of ions in salt bridge.

B)  Write the Half reactions.
C)  Determine the overall Balanced Net ion reaction.
D)  Calculate the Net Potential (E0 cell) of the voltaic cell.

E) Predict how the voltaic cell’s voltage will change in response to stress.

Underlying Principles:
Coulombs Law, Le Chatelier’s Principle, Voltage vs Amperage, Spontaneity and Equilibrium,
Solubility and Precipitates, Reduction potentials.

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9/13 – Tuesday – B Day – 3b Lab, 4 single                            Jump toTuesday Homework

Main focus

a).  To identify the voltage change in a voltaic cell due to Le Chatelier’s Principle with changes in the concentrations of ions in half cells, specifically in a concentration cell

b) To reinforce the concepts of the voltaic / galvanic cell by taking a 15 minute 1 page quiz.

1.  Concentration Cell –  Voltaic cells of our nervous system!!

Concentration Cell:

Cu0  (s)   +    Cu+2  —–>   Cu+2    +     Cu0

So only the Cu+2   ions and their concentration changes that can create a stress that will cause the reaction to shift (become more favorable).  If there is no change in the concentrations in either the oxidation cell or the reduction cell then there is no spontaneity or no voltage.  This voltaic cell can be manipulated by LeChatelier’s Principle  by adding  a
A) COMMON ion (ex. CuCl2)
B) an ion that will precipitate out Cu+2
C) water to one side that will dilute the molarity the concentration of Cu+2

Positive volts = Favorable Pathway = Spontaneous = entropy of universe (∆S) increasing
(∆S) increasing= energy dispersed = obtain Free Energy (∆G) to do work (power our phones!)

Concentration Cells in our bodies!!
Today’sDemo: Set up a concentration cell with same concentration of copper (II) nitrate in both half cells                        and in the salt bridge.
– I added more copper (II) ions into the reduction half cell = INCREASED VOLTAGE.
– I added water into the oxidation half cell = INCREASED VOLTAGE
– I added sodium carbonate into the oxidation half cell = INCREASED VOLTAGE

2.  Voltaic Cell Quiz – (Last 15 minutes)

Today’s Demo – What if I create voltaic cell with the same electrodes (Cu) and the same concentration of Copper ions?

Left Half Cell = Cu/ 0.1 M Cu(NO3)2
Right Half Cell = Cu /0.1 M Cu(NO3)2
Salt Bridge : 0.1M Cu(NO3)2
Stress 1: Add CuCl2 (s) to left beaker
Stress 2: Add H2O to right beaker
Do these 2 stresses counteract each other?

Today’s lesson on the concentration cell:.

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3b/4 Lab –

LAB Activity 1 – Making of batteries (voltaic or galvanic cell) – In this Lab each person will make a pair of voltaic cells that if successfully created will power a 3 volt transistor radio.

LAB 1 – Voltaic Cell.pdf

a) Made one voltaic cell and identifies anode, cathode and tested voltage.

Identified the spontaneous process with positive volts
wrote half reactions, identified ox and red agents.

b) Completed the diagram, conclusion questions, and reviewed errors for the                                            writing of the conclusion

&nbsp

Started answering questions 5, 6, 7, 8 from Lab:

question 6:  I should NOT have written that the Cu ions cannot pass through the dialysis tubing….

question 7:  What ions flowing can pass through the Dialysis Tubing (cellulose).

question 8:  What is fizzing – I will get to this the next lab period.

Error Analysis for the conclusion:

Chemical reactions that may have contributed:

Mg    +   HOH (water)   —–>  Mg+2  + 2OH   +   H2 (g)

Would these ions (Mg+2  + 2OH) form a precipitate with ions already present?  The color of the entire battery was bluish?                                                                             What does that say about movement of Cu+2 ions?

What factors were competing?  Based on the experimental voltage which factor dominated?

Gerber Voltaic Cell Time Lapse: I use this to review conclusion questions.

Review of the Voltaic cell quiz given Today: I will open this video after both classes finish the quiz today.

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9/13 –  Tuesday Homework:

1.  Please review the graded quiz that will be emailed back to you sometime today.  A blank copy and the key will be posted below as well as a complete review video which is posted above.. You have another quiz Wedenseday which will be the best out of 2!

Today’s Quiz Key will be posted here after period 3:

Voltaic Cell quiz 1.pdf

Voltaic Cell quiz 1 key.pdf                                                                                                                      View Download

2.  Complete both sides of the worksheet below and review with the key. Skip question 6 iii in question 6.

Recent Voltaic Cell AP Test Questions .pdf

Recent Voltaic Cell AP Test Questions key p.pdf

3:  Complete Lab  1, including Conclusion    – It is due Friday, 9/16
5

Conclusion Writing:

1.  What did find or measure Quantitatively?  What are the important values of your data?  This is normally posted in your results section of a formal writeup. How accurate are you (how close are you to a known standard, E0 cell )?

2.  Make the leap!  = connect your quantitative value and comparison with the known standard in terms of atom/ions or particle to explain a possibly reason for the outcome.

3. Error discussion.
Every laboratory is limited in errors in measurement and human errors. Do not write about these!! Please describe in detail every major limitation of this laboratory and why you believe it may have lead to your outcome.
IN this Lab the error discussion will result from things that are NOT FROM YOUR LEAP!  Do nor just list errors. I want an explanation how these errors could of resulted in YOUR OUTCOME.
Lab 1 Conclusion review:

1. Please tell me what you measured (voltage) and calculated (percent error). Do not mince words.  Get to the point. This is like our results section last year in our formal labs.

2/3:  Explain your errors (why your percent error was so low or negative).  You will combine the leap with the error analysis here.  The leap last year was always about an organism and the leap this year is always about atoms or ions.  So what did the atoms or ions do that may have contributed to the large negative error?  There is one error that is the largest and I like to think of it as a love triangle between Mg, Cu+2 , and H2O.  I think this was the inspiration to Ed Sheeran’s song, Happier.

..Walking down 29th and Park

I saw you in another’s arms Only a month we’ve been apart, You look happier
Saw you walk inside a bar
He said something to make you laugh
I saw that both your smiles were twice as wide as ours
Yeah, you look happier, you do
Ain’t nobody hurt you like I hurt you
But ain’t nobody love you like I do
Promise that I will not take it personal, baby
If you’re moving on with someone new
‘Cause baby you look happier, you do
My friends told me one day I’ll feel it too
And until then I’ll smile to hide the truth
But I know I was happier with you

Sat on the corner of the room
Everything’s reminding me of you
Nursing an empty bottle and telling myself you’re happier…Blah Blah

This cell was left over night.  Notice the Mg electrode is smaller and the cloudy mixture.  Were there precipitates?
How did this contribute to the error?  Or was this a competing error?  Notice some of the precipitates seem to be bluish green, which is an indication that Copper precipitates were also made.

9/14 – Wednesday – A Day – 2/3a Lab, 4 single –

Main focus

a) To review the AP problems that introduce different voltaic cell designs.

b) To review review the errors in Lab 1.

c) To take the second Voltaic Cell quiz

1. Review of the homework (Does the anode always get oxidized?).

Recent Voltaic Cell AP Test Questions key p.pdf

2.  Take the second voltaic quizBest out of 2!

3. Lab 1  – Conclusion questions/ Conclusion writing / Error Analysis

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2/3a Lab –

LAB Activity 1 – Making of batteries (voltaic or galvanic cell) – In this Lab each person will make a pair of voltaic cells that if successfully created will power a 3 volt transistor radio.

LAB 1 – Voltaic Cell.pdf

a) Made one voltaic cell and identifies anode, cathode and tested voltage.

Identified the spontaneous process with positive volts
wrote half reactions, identified ox and red agents.

b) Completed the diagram, conclusion questions, and reviewed errors for the                                            writing of the conclusion

&nbsp

Started answering questions 5, 6, 7, 8 from Lab:

question 6:  I should NOT have written that the Cu ions cannot pass through the dialysis tubing….

question 7:  What ions flowing can pass through the Dialysis Tubing (cellulose).

question 8:  What is fizzing – I will get to this the next lab period.

Error Analysis for the conclusion:

Chemical reactions that may have contributed:

Mg    +   HOH (water)   —–>  Mg+2  + 2OH   +   H2 (g)

Would these ions (Mg+2  + 2OH) form a precipitate with ions already present?  The color of the entire battery was bluish?                                                                             What does that say about movement of Cu+2 ions?

What factors were competing?  Based on the experimental voltage which factor dominated?

Gerber Voltaic Cell Time Lapse: I use this to review conclusion questions.

Review of the Lab 1 that might help with conclusion:

,______________________________________________

9/14 – Wednesday Homework: –

Today’s Voltaic cell Quiz 2 Key:
Voltaic Cell Quiz 2 – 22-23 KEY.pdf

1. Please work on finishing Lab 1 – DUE FRIDAY 9/16 in the purple crate in front of the class. I did post a video review of the lab if you still need more help in the error analysis of the conclusion.

2. Please read the notes below, the animation AND THE VIDEO below,  12 volt car battery (lead acid) battery which is oldest and the most utilized battery in the cat industry UNLESS its an electric car (Lithium Ion).

3. Complete the form below on battery in your car (lead acid) UNLESS

its an electric car (Lithium Ion). You have a total of 3 submissions to this form.

### How It Works

Let me give you the big picture first for those who aren’t very detail oriented. Basically, when a battery is being discharged, the sulfuric acid in the electrolyte is being depleted so that the electrolyte more closely resembles water. At the same time, sulfate from the acid is coating the plates and reducing the surface area over which the chemical reaction can take place. Charging reverses the process, driving the sulfate back into the acid. That’s it in a nutshell, but read on for a better understanding. If you’ve already run from the room screaming and pulling your hair, don’t worry.

The electrolyte (sulfuric acid and water) contains charged ions of sulfate and hydrogen. The sulfate ions are negatively charged, and the hydrogen ions have a positive charge. Here’s what happens when you turn on a load (headlight, starter, etc). The sulfate ions move to the negative plates and give up their negative charge. The remaining sulfate combines with the active material on the plates to form lead sulfate. This reduces the strength of the electrolyte, and the sulfate on the plates acts as an electrical insulator. The excess electrons flow out the negative side of the battery, through the electrical device, and back to the positive side of the battery. At the positive battery terminal, the electrons rush back in and are accepted by the positive plates. The oxygen in the active material (lead dioxide) reacts with the hydrogen ions to form water, and the lead reacts with the sulfuric acid to form lead sulfate.

The ions moving around in the electrolyte are what create the current flow, but as the cell becomes discharged, the number of ions in the electrolyte decreases and the area of active material available to accept them also decreases because it’s becoming coated with sulfate. Remember, the chemical reaction takes place in the pores on the active material that’s bonded to the plates.

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Lead Acid Battery Presentation

Lead Acid Battery Animation

Lead Acid Battery Tutorial

In the Lead Acid Battery:

PbO2(s)   +  HSO4 (aq)  +  3H+ (aq)   +  2e–  —>  PbSO4 (s)  +  2H2O (l)         E0 =   + 1.69 V

PbSO4(s)  + H+ (aq)  + 2e–  —->  HSO4 (aq)  + Pb (s)            E0 =     – .35 V

In your AP Reference Table:                  Pb+2  +  2e  —->    Pb0                                       E0=     – .13 V

Lead Acid Form:  This form is based in the information above. You have 3 more submissions tonight.

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9/15 – Thursday – B Day – 3b Lab, 4 single

Main focus

a) To Review the Lead Acid Battery

b) To Begin the design of Lab 2 – design a voltaic cell.

1. Review of Voltaic cell Quiz.

Voltaic Cell Quiz 2 – 22-23 KEY.pdf

2. Review the Lead Acid Battery HW Form- with key

Lead Acid Battery Form 22-23 – KEY.pdf

Lead Acid Battery Diagram:

2. Review the Alkaline battery – we did not get to this!!

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3b/4 Lab –

LAB Activity 2  – design a voltaic cell with greatest voltage– modest breakfast up for grabs

Voltaic Competition – Lab 2.pdf                                                                                                 View Download

Given the following electrodes:  Sn, Cu, Zn, Fe, Al
and solutions:

sodium hydroxide, copper (II) sulphate, tin (II) chloride,
iron (III) chloride, aluminum nitrate, zinc nitrate

Students gather their materials and design their battery.  Design needs to be in the lab groups presentation before they begin. Lab 2 – This is a slide-up lab done per each lab group.  Please follow instructions:

This Lab write-up is a group slide-up.  There is only one presentation per lab group and the entire group will get the same grade. I have emailed everyone with their group a link to the shared presentation

You need to present on the slides in the Presentation the following:

1. Title page with all Lab partners listed.

2. Objectives.

3. Materials Page listed with all available components

4. Labeled Diagram Slide of proposed voltaic cell design – Draw a diagram with your phone

A) labeled anode and cathode and identity of metals
B) direction of the flow of electrons.
C) all available ions present
D) salt in salt bridge – and ion flow
E) Charge on the electrodes
F) Half reactions for each half cell
G) Overall net ion equation
H) Eo cell
5. Labeled Diagram Slide of actual voltaic cell design – Use a picture you took with your phone                                                  Label as you did in #4
6. Diagram of manipulations of Spontaneity – U diagram, LeChateliers principle chart
7. Best Measured voltage (need a picture or video with the battery).
8. Discussion section of why your design or choice of materials lead you to your results.  Chemical reactions are needed (overall reaction) as well as any side reactions that were competing,  Why was you final choices better than your original

______________________

9/15 – Thursday Homework: –

1. Please work on your Lab 2 write-up with your lab partners.
Please complete the worksheet up to number 1 – 5 that was given out in class and it is available below.  Please develop a plan of action (design your best battery) with the materials provided.  Please do this with your lab partners. Tomorrow you will test your design. You will begin the slide presentation over the weekend and tomorrow.

Voltaic Competition – Lab 2.pdf                                                                                                              View Download

2. Please review Voltaic cell quiz 2 with Key.

Anyone who wants another try at this quiz can take a third one after school on a day of your choosing. I am after everyday. I will take the best out of 3 in this case.

3. Please complete Lab 1 .  It is due tomorrow, Friday 9/16.

All you should have left is the conclusion.

Conclusion Writing:

1.  What did find or measure Quantitatively?  What are the important values of your data?  This is normally posted in your results section of a formal writeup. How accurate are you (how close are you to a known standard, E0 cell )?   TELL ME WHAT YOU measured BASED on your written Objectives!!

2.  Make the leap!  = connect your quantitative value and comparison with the known standard in terms of atom/ions or particle to explain a possibly reason for the outcome.

3. Error discussion.
Every laboratory is limited in errors in measurement and human errors. Do not write about these!! Please describe in detail every major limitation of this laboratory and why you believe it may have lead to your outcome.
IN this Lab the error discussion will result from things that are NOT FROM YOUR LEAP!  Do nor just list errors. I want an explanation how these errors could of resulted in YOUR OUTCOME.
Lab 1 Conclusion review:

1. Please tell me what you measured (voltage) and calculated (percent error). Do not mince words.  Get to the point. This is like our results section last year in our formal labs.

2/3:  Explain your errors (why your percent error was so low or negative).  You will combine the leap with the error analysis here.  The leap last year was always about an organism and the leap this year is always about atoms or ions.  So what did the atoms or ions do that may have contributed to the large negative error?  There is one error that is the largest and I like to think of it as a love triangle between Mg, Cu+2 , and H2O.  I think this was the inspiration to Ed Sheeran’s song, Happier.

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

9/16 – Friday – A Day – 2/3a Lab, 4 single –                     Jump toFriday Homework

Main focus

a) To Construct a Voltaic cell with greatest sustained voltage in 30 seconds.

Period 2/3: Lab both periods

1.  Construct your voltaic cell based on your plan that you and your lab group decided on last night

a) Test your Voltage of that cell. (take pictures of your cell for the slide presentation (slide-up)

b) Make adjustments to that cell to improve it. You may need to identify other factors that you did not                                                                                                             consider in the your first design.

c) Complete your final design and record your sustained voltage for 30 secs.
Include the video and still pics of the final design in you slide-up.

Period 4:

1.  Same as above except you will only really get to build and test your design.

You will get 1c. Monday!

_____________________
2/3/4 Lab – Every period is Lab period today!

LAB Activity 1 – Making of batteries (voltaic or galvanic cell) – In this Lab each person will make a pair of voltaic cells that if successfully created will power a 3 volt transistor radio.

LAB 1 – Voltaic Cell.pdf

a) Made one voltaic cell and identifies anode, cathode and tested voltage.

Identified the spontaneous process with positive volts
wrote half reactions, identified ox and red agents.

b) Completed the diagram, conclusion questions, and reviewed errors for the writing of the
conclusion

&nbsp

1. Completion of the conclusion of Lab 1.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Discussion of Lab 2 – voltaic cell Race!  Start designing
Lab 2 – design a voltaic cell with greatest voltage– modest breakfast up for grabs

Given the following electrodes:  Sn, Cu, Zn, Fe, Al
and solutions:

potassium hydroxide, copper (II) sulphate, tin (II) chloride,
iron (III) chloride, aluminum nitrate, zinc nitrate

__________________________________________________

9/17 – Friday’s Homework: –

1. Alkaline battery assignment:
a) Please view the video on how the Alkaline battery is made.
h
b)  Please view the animation of the alkaline battery and the half reactions for this household battery.

c). Please complete the Alkaline Form.

2.  Lab 2 write-up. I have sent every lab group their individual link to a blank Google Presentation through their email that they signed up with for the course. Some people are not using personal gmail so there might be issues. In any case please open the link and begin working on your slides AS A GROUP.
IF YOU CANNOT OPEN THE LINK YOU NEED TO MAKE SURE YOU ARE SIGNED INTO GOOGLE WITH THE EMAIL ACCOUNT THAT THE LINK WAS SENT.

Your group needs to complete AT LEAST 1 – 5 for Monday:  6 – 8 will be for Monday night

1. Title page with all Lab partners listed.

2. Objectives.

3. Materials Page listed with all available components

4. Labeled Diagram Slide of proposed voltaic cell design – Draw a diagram with your phone

A) labeled anode and cathode and identity of metals
B) direction of the flow of electrons.
C) all available ions present
D) salt in salt bridge – and ion flow
E) Charge on the electrodes
F) Half reactions for each half cell
G) Overall net ion equation
H) Eo cell
5. Labeled Diagram Slide of actual voltaic cell design – Use a picture you took with your phone Label as you did in #4

6 – 8 will be Monday Night’s Homework_
6. Diagram of manipulations of Spontaneity – U diagram, Le Chateliers principle chart
7. Best Measured voltage (need a picture or video with the battery).
8. Discussion section of why your design or choice of materials lead you to your results.  Chemical reactions are needed (overall reaction) as well as any side reactions that were competing,  Why was you final choices better than your original

Alkaline Battery Assignment –

1: How Alkaline Batteries are made

Alkaline Battery Animation

In the Alkaline Battery:

Inner half Cell:

ZnO (s) + H2O (l) + 2e–  →   Zn (s) + 2OH (aq)            (E° = – 1.28 V)

Outer half Cell:

2MnO2 (s) + H2O (l) + 2e → Mn2O3 (s) + 2OH (aq)      (E° = + 0.15V)

https://electricalengineering123.com

Alkaline Battery Form:  This form is based in the information above. You have 3 submissions this weekend

End of week 3!!