## Q1 : Week 8  – 10/23 – 10/27

<- Week 7

#### Refresh this page every time you arrive!  I update this daily!!!

If you have not already please join the REMIND for this class.

LAB 4 – Metal Foils Lab is  Late!

________________________________________________________                                           Jump toMonday Homework         10/23 – Monday – B Day – 2, 3b/4  Lab

Main focus – a) To Complete Lab 6 and complete error analysis.                                                                                b) To complete Mole/particle concept                                                                                                          c) To begin Lab 7 – empirical formula of Copper Iodide

Period 2 :

1. Complete Mole concept and particle theory

a) Worlds smallest movie – Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, piezo-electric crystals

b) Mole concept lesson – diagram, conversions

c) Why we need a mole notes:  H + Cl –> HCl
Why we need to balance chemical reactions!!!!
We can use a scale to count!

2. Note-taking of how to complete the Lab 7 – Empirical Formula of copper iodide adding mass lab

Period 3b :

1. Complete Lab 6 – Empirical Formula of magnesium hydrate –

a) Complete all calculations and hand in

b) Mole concept lesson – diagram, conversions

c) Why we need a mole notes:  H + Cl –> HCl
Why we need to balance chemical reactions!!!!
We can use a scale to count!

Period 4 –

1. Lab 7Empirical Formula of Copper Iodide – adding mass lab

a) Formal lab write – up

Particle / Mole Theory Presentation:

______________________________________________________

Mole Concept Diagram Lesson:

A mole is an abbreviated NUMBER that helps chemistry quantify the actual number of particles (atoms, ions, electrons, molecules, etc.) needed to DO chemistry.

We need an abbreviated number because these microscopic particles ARE SO SMALL that we need a TREMENDOUS amount of them to have a significant amount of matter that we can measure with in the microscopic world.  Think how many atoms a mole of Al atoms stacked on each other would be?  (Lab 4!) It was over a 100 trillion meters even though each Al atom has 0.286 nm diameter!!  Light travels at about 10000 trillion meters per second so this distance would extend way beyond our solar system!

Please remember that the mole is a “how many quantity” that helps us actually Do Chemistry!!! From the mole concept we are able to:

1. Determine the atomic mass of elements (This is how we determined how elements  differed initially!!!).
2: Determine chemical formulas of compounds.
3: Determine the chemical equations of chemical reaction.
4: Predicting quantities like how much of product will we produce given a certain amount of reactants in a chemical reaction.
5:  Predicting quantities like how much of a reactant is needed to make certain amount of product.
6: Determining the quantities (V, P, T, n)  of a gas under changing conditions.
7:  Solve Electrolytic Problems (Amperage, how much metal is deposited on cathode, etc.)
8: Determine a concentration (Molarity = mole / Liter of solution) of a solution of ions etc.
9: Finding a quantity that is directly related to the mole. The key is here is that we are able to use this How many Number not by counting particles which would be impossible but by USING A SCALE!   Because we decided to make the Relative Atomic Mass the equivalent in grams that 1 MOLE of every element would measure we can use a GRAM Balance or Scale to measure mass AND THEM convert to moles or vice versa.

*OUR WINDOW INTO THE WORLD OF HOW MANY Particle IS THROUGH MASS or volume if a gas.

Using moles to answer how many is called Stoichiometry!!!

Stoichiometry works because of the Law of Conservation of Mass.
Because of Antoine Lavoisier and the Modern Atomic Theory by John Dalton, atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions and are just rearranged into different ratios of elements in compounds.  These ratios are a How Many Value!

Stiochiometry also works because of the Law of definite proportions.
Because of Joseph Proust and the Modern Atomic Theory, each compound has its own unique arrangement of atoms called a chemical formula which results in each unique compound having a unique percent by mass of each type of atom (element) in its molecule.  This is due to compound having a unique ratio of atoms in their chemical formulas.  Chemical formulas are a How many Value!

Since chemical reactions are a result of atoms, molecules, and ions colliding as individual particles then to calculate the outcomes of reactions we must consider the moles (THE HOW MANY VALUE) of the chemical species.

____________________________________________________________

Lab 7 – Synthesis of Copper Iodide                                                                                                                             (and determination of the empirical Formula of copper iodide)

Lab 7 – Synthesis of Copper Iodide.pdf

This Lab will be our first formal lab.  I am giving out a data worksheet to keep you organized in your data collection but it will not be handed in.  You will write a data section and calculation section in your formal lab write-up that will be in a google doc that will be shared to you in next couple of days.

Cu (s)  +  I2 (g)  —>  Cu? I?

We now know that Copper has 2 oxidation states, thus we are trying to identify if Cu lost 1 electron or 2 electrons? Objectives:  1. To determine the empirical formula of the salt (product).

2. To determine the percent yield of the salt.

We will take notes on how to perform this lab.

Lab 7 : Synthesis of Copper Iodide

*Next year complete  Stoichiometry 1 – balance yield.pdf before the Analytical quiz 1 – There is a percent yield question that needs attention 1st.

1. Lab 5 & 6 are due for both classes. Lab 6 just has calculations and no conclusion but Lab 5 does have a conclusion.  Do not just list errors. Completely explain why your experimental outcome was lower or higher than the theoretical.

2. Please complete UP TO BUT NOT INCLUDING g) or i) of the the take-home quiz. I need to to teach one more concept in order to complete the quiz.

Analytical quiz 1 – Hydrate, precipitation, and Stoich.pdf

3. DO NOT COMPLETE any Form tonight.

________________________________________________________________________                              Jump toTuesday Homework / top    10/24 – Tuesday – A Day – 2/3a Lab, 4

Main focus –

a)  To calculate a theoretical amount of product produced in a chemical reaction.
b)  To calculate the percent yield from the theoretical calculated and experimental                       obtained.                                                                                                                                                        c)  To synthesize  copper iodide and determine its empirical formula.

Period 2/3a :

1.  Complete the note-taking of the Lab 7 – Empirical Formula of copper iodide.

2.  Begin/complete the data collection of the Lab 7                                                                                                            3.  Start the calculations/write-up of the Lab                                                                                                                          4.  TEACH % yield, balanced reaction and stoichiometry                                                                                                    5.  Begin the formal write – up on shared google doc.

Formal Lab Write-up Instructions: https://mrgrodskichemistry.com/lab-7-formal-write-up/

Period 4 :

1.  Start the calculations/write-up of the Lab 7 – Empirical formula of copper iodide –

2.  TEACH % yield, balanced reaction and stoichiometry

Formal Lab Write-up Instructions: https://mrgrodskichemistry.com/lab-7-formal-write-up/

Both classes will complete all of your calculations from Lab 7 that lead to your

a) Mass of copper reacted
b) Mass of Iodine reacted
c) Mass of product (salt of copper and iodine)
d) empirical formula of copper and iodine
e) Balanced chemical reaction of the synthesis of copper and iodine.
f) Theoretical grams of the product produced.
g) Percent Yield.

% Yield  experimental  x 100                                                                   theoretical

____________________________________________________________

Lab 7 – Synthesis of Copper Iodide                                                                                                                             (and determination of the empirical Formula of copper iodide)

Lab 7 – Synthesis of Copper Iodide.pdf

This Lab will be our first formal lab.  I am giving out a data worksheet to keep you organized in your data collection but it will not be handed in.  You will write a data section and calculation section in your formal lab write-up that will be in a google doc that will be shared to you in next couple of days.

Cu (s)  +  I2 (g)  —>  Cu? I?

We now know that Copper has 2 oxidation states, thus we are trying to identify if Cu lost 1 electron or 2 electrons? Objectives:  1. To determine the empirical formula of the salt (product).

2. To determine the percent yield of the salt.

We will take notes on how to perform this lab.

Formal Lab Write-up Instructions: https://mrgrodskichemistry.com/lab-7-formal-write-up/

Lab 7 : Synthesis of Copper Iodide

2 : Lab 7 review –  This might help with your calculations!

1. Please view Lecture 1.3 with the worksheet below.

I will walk you through all questions except number 4.
2.  Complete Worksheet Stoichiometry 1 – balance yield.pdf (number 4) and review with key below:

Stoichiometry 1 – balance yield.pdf

Stoichiometry 1 – balance yield key.pdf

3.  Complete the worksheet from last night (g) and on that will allow to place your answers into the form below.  The form will be on auto-grade to grade your responses.  You may submit as many as 4 times as you would like BEFORE tomorrow morning.  Tomorrow morning I will post a handwritten key and review tomorrow in class.

1: AP Lecture 1.3 : Stoichiometry and percent yield

3. Analytic Chemistry Quiz 1 Form:

________________________________________________________________________________          Jump toWednesday Homework / top 10/25 – Wednesday – B Day – 2, 3b/4  Lab

Main focus –

a)  To identify the mole/particle concept was needed to do Stoichiometry – RATIO’s.
b)  To Review the past Stoichiometry homework assignments.                                                        c)  To identify the Law of Conservation of mass in chemical equations that have chemical formulas (that have been determined experimentally) provides us a way to use Ratios of each chemical TO SOLVE FOR ANOTHER CHEMICAL.

RATIOS – are ratios of “how many” = moles!!!! Most of what we do mathematically will be using these ratios to answer or verify.

Ratios of atoms in compounds —–> chemical formulas

Ratios of each substance in a chemical reaction = Balanced Chemical Reaction –> Predict

Period 2, 3b:

Homework Review– connected the problem concepts with stoichiometry of compounds and stoichiometry of chemical reactions

Types of Chemical Analysis we have studied:

a)  % by mass – (Hydrate Labs)

b)  combustion analysis

c)  precipitation analysis – ( lab we will complete next week)

1. Percent by mass —–> empirical formula/molecular formula

empiri&molec ditto hydrate combination KEY p.pdf

2. Combustion analysis —> percent by mass —> empirical/molecular formula

Analytical Chemistry I KEY- determining chemical formulas.pdf

3. Stoichiometry of ions, precipitation analysis

4.  Quiz / Form review:

Analytical quiz 1 – Hydrate, precipitation, and Stioch KEY.pdf

5Formal Lab Write-up Instructions: https://mrgrodskichemistry.com/lab-7-formal-write-up/

Period 4:

1. Lab Quiz –  activity –

– Complete a lab similar to the  copper iodide lab

–  work handed in individually but will work in lab groups

*I NEED LAB 3 BACK!!! Some of you did not return it!!
ZEROS are going in without it!

1. Please View Lecture 1.5 below on Molar stoichiometry.   I will model how to complete the first side of the worksheet and then you will complete the backside on your own and review with the key.

Stoichiometry 3 – Molarity limiting reagent.pdf

Stoichiometry 3 – Molarity limiting reagent Key.pdf

2. Please complete first the Title page, write your objectives, and write a procedure for Lab 7 IN THE SHARED DOC THAT I SENT YOU THIS WEEK.  Use your notes and use the review page for the lab.

a) Title Page – the first pageplease see my shared students work in the review page.

b) Second Page – Background – (you are not writing this tonight)
c) Write your Objectives – at least 2

d) Write a procedure that has numbered with each step. DO NOT WRITE A PARAGRAPH!

A procedure has to clear enough that someone who is not in our class can follow to repeat the experiment.

Formal Lab Write-up Instructions: https://mrgrodskichemistry.com/lab-7-formal-write-up/

1: Lecture 1.5 : Molarity Stoichiometry

___________________________________________________________                      Jump to:  Thursday Homework /top  10/26 – Thursday – A Day – 2/3a Lab, 4

Main focus –
a) To begin the conservation of mass presentation – balancing chemical reactions,                                           Stoichiometry  of  chemical reactions using the mole ratios that we get from balancing –                         applications to Challenger and Hindenburg

b)  Observe the hydrogen explosions with incorrect ratios and incorrect ratios.

Period 2:

1. Complete the homework check for period 2 only.

2. LGI Hydrogen Ballons demo

3. Conservation of mass presentation – balancing chemical reactions –> Mole Ratios –> Stoichiometry

– Begin presentation for the Space Shuttle/ Hindenburg

Period 3a:

4. Video analysis of explosions

5.  Presentation for the Space Shuttle/ Hindenburg

Period 4:

1. LGI Hydrogen Ballons demo

Conservation of Mass Notes:

Stoichiometry works because of the Law of Conservation of Mass.
Because of Antoine Lavoisier and the Modern Atomic Theory by John Dalton, atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions and are just rearranged into different ratios of elements in compounds.  These ratios are a How Many Value!

Stiochiometry also works because of the Law of definite proportions.
Because of Joseph Proust and the Modern Atomic Theory, each compound has its own unique arrangement of atoms called a chemical formula which results in each unique compound having a unique percent by mass of each type of atom (element) in its molecule.  This is due to compound having a unique ratio of atoms in their chemical formulas.  Chemical formulas are a How many Value!

Conservation of Mass —-> Balancing provides the mole ratios needed to predict outcomes in chemical reactions. But these ratios of how many also provide chemistry the amounts needed to make the most efficient reactions = GOOD CAKE!

Cyclohexane combusts more completely when poured out because the ratio of cyclohexane to oxygen is 1 : 9.           We get those ratios when we balance.

1 C6H12  (l)  +    9 O2 (g)    —–>   6 CO(g)   +   6 H2O (g)    +   Energy

That means 9 O2 molecules per 1 C6H12  is needed to maximize the reaction.  The cyclohexane was not getting the right ratio in the flask but achieved the right ratio when it was poured out.

B.  Hydrogen Balloon Demo:

2 H2 (g)  +  O2 (g)  —>   2 H20  +   Energy

This means  2 H2 molecules per 1 O2  is needed to maximize the reaction and thus maximize the energy released. If this ratios in the reaction are not  2 to 1 then the reaction will be less efficient with some unreacted reactants and a lower amount of energy released.  Sometime the reaction will not even run at all if the ratios are poor.

Conservation of Mass Presentation:

1. Please the Flaming Tube demo video below.  This demo is what the calculations in the preceding lecture are based. What is the Limiting Reagent in this demo?  Why isn’t the flame coming out of the tube and burning my room into oblivion?  I will do this demo in class Monday.

2. Please view the Limiting reagent Lecture that teaches the chart method of calculating the limiting reagent. Complete side ONLY with me. How could this method made last night’s homework easier?

Limiting reagent intro demo new worksheet.pdf

3.   Please complete Stiochiometry 3 – ICE Table Molarity Salsa.pdf  which is really the second problem the homework Last night (Stiochiometry 3 – Molarity limiting reagent.pdf).  So please redo that limiting reagent problem using the ICE Table method. Don’t be mad that this way is simpler!!!

*Remember that moles will be calculated through Molarity (M * V(in Liters) = moles.
Molarity ( mole / Liter )   X   Volume (Liter)  = mole

Stoichiometry 3 – ICE Table Molarity Salsa.pdf

Stoichiometry 3 – ICE Table Molarity Salsa key BEST p.pdf

1 : The Flaming Tube Demofor the lecture below!

2 : Limiting Reagent Lecture –  Teaches the chart method!

This Year – Period 2 : Hydrogen Balloon Explosion Comparison:

2 H2 (g)  +  O2 (g)  —>   2 H20  +   Energy

.______________________________________________________________________                Jump toFriday Homework/top   10/27 – Friday – B Day – 2, 3b/4  Lab

Main focus
a) To identify the limiting reagent in the space shuttle and Hindenburg disasters.

b) To review the stoichiometry of how to determine the Limiting Reagent and the Excess Chemical.  c) To review the Stoichiometry Table in limiting reagent problems

Period 2, 3b:

*Check homework for 3b today!

1Complete the Hydrogen Balloon explosion analysis – When did we make good cake?

2. Complete the Space shuttle and Hindenburg disasters

– determine limiting reagent in their explosions.

100% Hydrogen balloon was the Hindenburg

2 : 1 ratio balloon was the The Challenger.

3.  Flaming Tube Demo –   solve for the limiting reagent/excess chemical

Period 4:

1.  Lab 7 – Precipitation Analysis

Take notes on  Lab 8 – Precipitation Analysis – notes and begin.

Lab 8 – Gravimetric Analysis of a Metal Carbonate – (precipitation analysis) –
Introduction to lab. Identifying unknown through g/mol.
a) Discussion of Bernoulli’s principle in explaining how the aspirator works.

This Year – Period 2 : Hydrogen Balloon Explosion Comparison:

2 H2 (g)  +  O2 (g)  —>   2 H20  +   Energy

This Year – Period 4 : Hydrogen Balloon Explosion Comparison:

2 H2 (g)  +  O2 (g)  —>   2 H20  +   Energy

_________________________________________________________________________________________                                                                              Lab 8 – Precipitation Analysis of an Alkali carbonate

1. Lab 8 – Identify the alkali in the original salt of a metal carbonate.
Lab 8 – Gravimetric analysis of a metal carbonate NEW 1920.pdf

Data gathering for Lab 8 –
Measure your data from Lab 8 – Gravimetric analysis of a metal carbonate.
a) dry out carbonates with microwave.
b) attain dried mass of unknown carbonate.
c) Dissolve in water (about 200ml)
e) filter precipitate with aspirator and Buchner funnel.
f) dry out precipitate (put measured filter paper on watch glass) in oven.

1. Please make sure the following parts of the formal lab write-up of Lab 7 is completed for Monday in the shared doc that was sent you earlier this week:

a) Title Page –

b) Background

c) Objectives –

d) Materials –

e) Procedure –

f) Data Table

g) Calculations

*These items were assigned for Wednesday night this week.

PRESENTATION IS AS IMPORTANT AS THE CONTENT!!! Make it professional!

All instructions along with examples can be found in the link below.

Formal Lab Write-up Instructions: https://mrgrodskichemistry.com/lab-7-formal-write-up/