## Q1 : Week 8  – 10/17 – 10/21

If you have not already please join the REMIND for this class.
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10/17 – Monday – B Day – 2, 3b Lab/4                                       Jump toMonday Homework

Main focus –

a) To perform Lab 5 and Lab 6 in determining the percent by mass or the empirical formula (in                       hydrates).

b) To complete the error analysis of the hydrate labs

c) Complete Mole / Particular concept presentation

Period 2:

1.  Lab 6 – Empirical Formula of magnesium hydrate –

a) Setup – and complete first heating

while heating -we will accomplish 2,3, and 4 below…

2. HW review – connected the problem concepts with stoichiometry of compounds and stoichiometry of chemical reactions

empiri&molec ditto hydrate combination KEY p.pdf

3. Mole concept lesson – diagram, conversions

4. Why we need a mole notes:  H + Cl –> HCl
Why we need to balance chemical reactions!!!!
We can use a scale to count!
5. Final heating – Complete Lab 6.

Period 3b, 4:

1. Lab 5 complete with percent error.

2. Lab 6 begin

3. Same 1 – 5 in period 1.

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Mole Concept Diagram Lesson:

A mole is an abbreviated NUMBER that helps chemistry quantify the actual number of particles (atoms, ions, electrons, molecules, etc.) needed to DO chemistry.

We need an abbreviated number because these microscopic particles ARE SO SMALL that we need a TREMENDOUS amount of them to have a significant amount of matter that we can measure with in the microscopic world.  Think how many atoms a mole of Al atoms stacked on each other would be?  (Lab 4!) It was over a 100 trillion meters even though each Al atom has 0.286 nm diameter!!  Light travels at about 10000 trillion meters per second so this distance would extend way beyond our solar system!

Please remember that the mole is a “how many quantity” that helps us actually Do Chemistry!!! From the mole concept we are able to:

1. Determine the atomic mass of elements (This is how we determined how elements  differed initially!!!).
2: Determine chemical formulas of compounds.
3: Determine the chemical equations of chemical reaction.
4: Predicting quantities like how much of product will we produce given a certain amount of reactants in a chemical reaction.
5:  Predicting quantities like how much of a reactant is needed to make certain amount of product.
6: Determining the quantities (V, P, T, n)  of a gas under changing conditions.
7:  Solve Electrolytic Problems (Amperage, how much metal is deposited on cathode, etc.)
8: Determine a concentration (Molarity = mole / Liter of solution) of a solution of ions etc.
9: Finding a quantity that is directly related to the mole. The key is here is that we are able to use this How many Number not by counting particles which would be impossible but by USING A SCALE!   Because we decided to make the Relative Atomic Mass the equivalent in grams that 1 MOLE of every element would measure we can use a GRAM Balance or Scale to measure mass AND THEM convert to moles or vice versa.

*OUR WINDOW INTO THE WORLD OF HOW MANY Particle IS THROUGH MASS or volume if a gas.

Using moles to answer how many is called Stoichiometry!!!

Stoichiometry works because of the Law of Conservation of Mass.
Because of Antoine Lavoisier and the Modern Atomic Theory by John Dalton, atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions and are just rearranged into different ratios of elements in compounds.  These ratios are a How Many Value!

Stiochiometry also works because of the Law of definite proportions.
Because of Joseph Proust and the Modern Atomic Theory, each compound has its own unique arrangement of atoms called a chemical formula which results in each unique compound having a unique percent by mass of each type of atom (element) in its molecule.  This is due to compound having a unique ratio of atoms in their chemical formulas.  Chemical formulas are a How many Value!

Since chemical reactions are a result of atoms, molecules, and ions colliding as individual particles then to calculate the outcomes of reactions we must consider the moles (THE HOW MANY VALUE) of the chemical species.

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3b/4 Lab – Lab 5 – Percent mass of water in a Hydrate

LAB 5 – copper sulfate pentahydrate lab.pdf

Let’s look at an ionic crystal that has no water called anhydrate.

Lets look at copper (II) sulphate : CuSO4  :
 This image was build by X-ray imaging of salt. Now it is more complex than the crystal above for NaCl because we have a polyatomic ion in the crystal. The Yellow is the Sulfur attached to 4 oxygens (red).  The brown color (i think its brown) is the copper. Notice regular repeating pattern.The sticks represent the bonds or the attractions between the ions. Its hard but if look inside the crystal there is one Cu per sulfate ion.

Lets look at the formula of the hydrate of the same salt : copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate:

 CuSO4 ● 5H2O Notice the Dot between anhydrate and water.  This Dot means “WITH” and not to multiply.    There are exactly 5 water molecules for every 1 Cu+2 and  1 SO4-2 in the crystal.

Lets look at the crystal formation of copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate:
 You will notice that water (it has 2 white hydrogen atoms) molecules are situated inside the crystals at particular regions in the crystal in exact ratios.  This is a fixed ratio (stoichiometric ratio). It is hard but you can see the 5 water molecules per 1 copper ion and 1 sulfate ion. What makes it hard is that the crystal repeats in all directions. The water can be removed from the salt by heating it.
CuSO4 • 5H20   ——->    CuSO4  (s)     +      5H20  (g)                                                                                                                               Heat
Today we will be able to do the following:
a) Determine. the mass of your annhydrate (dried hydrate)
b) Determine the mass of the water (THAT was in your crystal)
c)  calculate the experimental percent by mass of water:

% by mass =  Mass of the part (mass of water missing)         x     100
Mass of the whole (mass of original hydrate)

d)  calculate the Theoretical percent by mass of water using the chemical formula of the hydrate:

CuSO4 • 5H20

Given the formula above, determine the percent by mass of water of the hydrate:

Assume you have 1 mole of CuSO4 • 5H20:

Thus in 1 mole of the hydrate you have 5 moles of water:

For every one (CuSO4 • 5H20) you have 5 moles of water.

1               :               5

Ratios of how many!!! This is why we need a mole theory!

% by massMass of the part (mass of 5 moles of water)         x     100
Mass of the whole (mass of 1 mole of hydrate)

*Mass of 1 mole of any compound (with a unique chemical formula) is the sum of the atomic masses of all atoms in the formula or molecule. You need the periodic table!

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Lab 6 – Determination of the Empirical formula of a Hydrate

*Determine the chemical formula of a hydrate:

LAB 6 – Empirical Formula analysis of Hydrate.pdf

We will determine the formula of the hydrate in this lab much like your homework this weekend. Imagine that the work in the class parallels what we do in Lab!  To complete the chemical formula we need to obtain the grams of water lost and the grams of anhydrate remaining from drying out another hydrate.
The grams (how heavy) of water and the anhydrate will be determined the same way as Lab 5.  But we will take these grams (how heavy) and convert it to a how many number (mole concept) to get the ratio of water to anhydrate. Because of the conservation of mass by Antoine Levassuer, the mass of  water that is released from the crystal (hydrate) is the same mass that was is in the crystal.  THus the moles of water lost is the water that are in the crystal (in the formula ) .

Formulas of compounds are fixed! (Thanks Joe Proust – Law of definite proportions)

Once we determine the mass of water lost, we at the same time determine the mass of remaining part of the salt called the annhydrate.  Convert grams of both parts of the hydrate to moles  and then get a ratio of how many (moles) by dividing by the lowest number of moles.  That ratio is what we will use for the fixed formula!

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10/17 – Monday’s Homework: –

1.  Precipitation Analysis:   Now that we can determine chemical formulas from heating (Lab 5) or from combustion analysis (Analytical Chemistry I – determining chemical formulas.pdf) we can also do so by the number of dry grams of precipitate, as long as we use stoichiometry (USING RATIOS OF MOLES!!!!)

a)Watch Lecture 1.1  Below and and follow along with me with question one as we calculate the Molarity of the individual ions in the solution using stoichiometry.

b) Watch Lecture 1.2 and follow along with me to complete questions 4, and 5 as we use precipitation and stoichiometry to determine the chemical formulas of the salts (ionic compounds).

c) Complete question 5 on your own and review with the key below. This question puts it all together!
Analytical Chemistry II – Mol,Dilution, precipitation analysis.pdf

Analytical Chemistry II KEY NEW – Mol,Dilution, precipitation analysis.pdf

a) Lecture 1.1 : Molarity of ions

b) Lecture 1.2 : Preciptation analysis

End of Monday..

10/18 – Tuesday – A Day – 2, 3a Lab/4

I will be absent today due to taking my son on a college visit. Please view and complete the activities posted below.

Main focus –

a) To complete Hydrate Labs and the error analysis of the hydrate labs

b) To begin the conservation of mass presentation – balancing chemical reactions,                                           Stoichiometry  of  chemical reactions using the mole ratios that we get from balancing

Period 2/3a, 4 – Today’s assignments (which is also your homework!) – YOU MAY WORK TOGETHER!!!!

1.  Lab 5 & 6 are due for both classes. Lab 6 just has calculations and no conclusion but Lab 5 does have a conclusion.  Do not just list errors. Completely explain why your experimental outcome was lower or higher than the theoretical.

2. Please complete the take-home quiz ( Analytic Chemistry Quiz 1 ) ON the worksheet that was given out today or posted below:

I have a stack of hard copies of the quiz up on my teaching stand. Use it to work on the quiz AND THEN add your answers into the form. YOU will NOT be handing anything in.

You will be submitting a form only.

Here is a digital copy:
Analytical quiz 1 – Hydrate, precipitation, and Stoich.pdf

3. Complete the Form below that will allow to place your answers into the form below.  The form will be on auto-grade to grade your responses.  You may submit as many as 4 times as you would like BEFORE tomorrow morning.  Tomorrow morning I will post a handwritten key and review tomorrow in class.

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10/18 – Tuesday’s Homework: –

Look Familiar?

1.  Lab 5 & 6 are due for both classes. Lab 6 just has calculations and no conclusion but Lab 5 does have a conclusion.  Do not just list errors. Completely explain why your experimental outcome was lower or higher than the theoretical.

2. Please complete the take-home quiz ( Analytic Chemistry Quiz 1 ) ON the worksheet that was given out today                               or posted below:

Analytical quiz 1 – Hydrate, precipitation, and Stoich.pdf

3. Complete the Form below that will allow to place your answers into the form below.  The form will be on auto-grade to grade your responses.  You may submit as many as 4 times as you would like BEFORE tomorrow morning.  Tomorrow morning I will post a handwritten key and review tomorrow in class.

Analytic Chemistry Quiz 1 Form:

End Of Tuesday!

10/19 – Wednesday – B Day – 2, 3b Lab/4

Main focus –

a) To begin the conservation of mass presentation – balancing chemical reactions,                                           Stoichiometry  of  chemical reactions using the mole ratios that we get from balancing

Period 2, 3b –

1.  Mole Diagram Lesson – (using a how many value)  in Stoichiometry (ratios of how many).

2.  Type of Chemical Analysis we have studied:

a)  % by mass – (Hydrate Labs)

b)  combustion analysis

c)  precipitation analysis – ( lab we will complete next week)

3.  HW review – Stoichiometry of ions, precipitation analysis

Analytical Chemistry II KEY NEW – Mol,Dilution, precipitation analysis.pdf

4.  Quiz / Form review:

Analytical quiz 1 – Hydrate, precipitation, and Stioch KEY.pdf

5.  Lab 7 – Empirical formula of copper iodide – (adding mass lab) – INTRODUCTION

Period 4 –

Lab 7 – Empirical formula of copper iodide –

1.  We discussed the error analysis for both Hydrate Labs (5,6)
2.   Took notes on how to gather data for Lab 7 –  Run the Lab tomorrow, period 1

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Mole Concept Diagram Lesson:

A mole is an abbreviated NUMBER that helps chemistry quantify the actual number of particles (atoms, ions, electrons, molecules, etc.) needed to DO chemistry.

We need an abbreviated number because these microscopic particles ARE SO SMALL that we need a TREMENDOUS amount of them to have a significant amount of matter that we can measure with in the microscopic world.  Think how many atoms a mole of Al atoms stacked on each other would be?  (Lab 4!) It was over a 100 trillion meters even though each Al atom has 0.286 nm diameter!!  Light travels at about 10000 trillion meters per second so this distance would extend way beyond our solar system!

Please remember that the mole is a “how many quantity” that helps us actually Do Chemistry!!! From the mole concept we are able to:

1. Determine the atomic mass of elements (This is how we determined how elements  differed initially!!!).
2: Determine chemical formulas of compounds.
3: Determine the chemical equations of chemical reaction.
4: Predicting quantities like how much of product will we produce given a certain amount of reactants in a chemical reaction.
5:  Predicting quantities like how much of a reactant is needed to make certain amount of product.
6: Determining the quantities (V, P, T, n)  of a gas under changing conditions.
7:  Solve Electrolytic Problems (Amperage, how much metal is deposited on cathode, etc.)
8: Determine a concentration (Molarity = mole / Liter of solution) of a solution of ions etc.
9: Finding a quantity that is directly related to the mole. The key is here is that we are able to use this How many Number not by counting particles which would be impossible but by USING A SCALE!   Because we decided to make the Relative Atomic Mass the equivalent in grams that 1 MOLE of every element would measure we can use a GRAM Balance or Scale to measure mass AND THEM convert to moles or vice versa.

*OUR WINDOW INTO THE WORLD OF HOW MANY Particle IS THROUGH MASS or volume if a gas.

Using moles to answer how many is called Stoichiometry!!!

Stoichiometry works because of the Law of Conservation of Mass.
Because of Antoine Lavoisier and the Modern Atomic Theory by John Dalton, atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions and are just rearranged into different ratios of elements in compounds.  These ratios are a How Many Value!

Stiochiometry also works because of the Law of definite proportions.
Because of Joseph Proust and the Modern Atomic Theory, each compound has its own unique arrangement of atoms called a chemical formula which results in each unique compound having a unique percent by mass of each type of atom (element) in its molecule.  This is due to compound having a unique ratio of atoms in their chemical formulas.  Chemical formulas are a How many Value!

Since chemical reactions are a result of atoms, molecules, and ions colliding as individual particles then to calculate the outcomes of reactions we must consider the moles (THE HOW MANY VALUE) of the chemical species.

WE will attack the Ratios of atoms and ions in chemical formulas and Ratios chemicals in chemical equations!

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3b/4 Lab – Lab 7 – Synthesis of Copper Iodide                                                                                                                                             (and determination of the empirical Formula of copper iodide)

Lab 7 – Synthesis of Copper Iodide.pdf

This Lab will be our first formal lab.  I am giving out a data worksheet to keep you organized in your data collection but it will not be handed in.  You will write a data section and calculation section in your formal lab write-up that will be in a google doc that will be shared to you in next couple of days.

Cu (s)  +  I2 (g)  —>  Cu? I?

Objectives:  1. To determine the empirical formula of the salt (product).

2. To determine the percent yield of the salt.

We will take notes on how to perform this lab.

Lab 7 : Synthesis of Copper Iodide

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10/19 – Wednesday Homework: –

1. Please view Lecture 1.3 with the worksheet below.

I will walk you through all questions except number 4.
2.  Complete Worksheet Stoichiometry 1 – balance yield.pdf (number 4) and review with key below:

Stoichiometry 1 – balance yield.pdf

Stoichiometry 1 – balance yield key.pdf

1: AP Lecture 1.3 : Stoichiometry and percent yield

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10/20 – Thursday – A Day – 2, 3a Lab/4

Main focus –

a)  To calculate a theoretical amount of product produced in a chemical reaction.

b)  To calculate the percent yield from the theoretical calculated and experimental                       obtained.

c)  To synthesize  copper iodide and determine its empirical formula.

Period 2 ,3a –

1. Review the concept of % yield from the quiz from Wednesday and homework.

2. errors in Hydrates Labs – Note-taking on Lab 7 –

3. Run the lab and gather Data –

4. Conservation of Mass – Balancing Chemical Reactions – Module 7!

Period 4 –

3. Run the lab and gather Data – Lab 7

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2,3a Lab /4  – Lab 7 – Synthesis of Copper Iodide                                                                                                                             (and determination of the empirical Formula of copper iodide)

Lab 7 – Synthesis of Copper Iodide.pdf

This Lab will be our first formal lab.  I am giving out a data worksheet to keep you organized in your data collection but it will not be handed in.  You will write a data section and calculation section in your formal lab write-up that will be in a google doc that will be shared to you in next couple of days.

Cu (s)  +  I2 (g)  —>  Cu? I?

We now know that Copper has 2 oxidation states, thus we are trying to identify if Cu lost 1 electron or 2 electrons? Objectives:  1. To determine the empirical formula of the salt (product).

2. To determine the percent yield of the salt.

We will take notes on how to perform this lab.

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10/20 – Thursday Homework: –

1. Please View Lecture 1.5 below on Molar stoichiometry.   I will model how to complete the first side of the worksheet and then you will complete the backside on your own and review with the key.

Stoichiometry 3 – Molarity limiting reagent.pdf

Stoichiometry 3 – Molarity limiting reagent Key.pdf

Period 4 only – period 2/3a needs to complete data gathering tomorrow.

a) Mass of copper reacted
b) Mass of Iodine reacted
c) Mass of product (salt of copper and iodine)
d) empirical formula of copper and iodine
e) Balanced chemical reaction of the synthesis of copper and iodine.
f) Theoretical grams of the product produced.
g) Percent Yield.

It may be helpful to view my video below that explains these calculations and skills from Lab 7!

1: Lecture 1.5 : Molarity Stoichiometry

2 : Lab 7 review –  This might help with your calculations!

End of Thursday!

10/21 – Friday – B Day – 2, 3b Lab/4

Main focus –
a) To begin the conservation of mass presentation – balancing chemical reactions,                                           Stoichiometry  of  chemical reactions using the mole ratios that we get from balancing –                         applications to Challenger and Hindenburg

b)  Observe the hydrogen explosions with incorrect ratios and incorrect ratios.

Period 2  –

1.  Complete the data collection of Lab 7 –

a) Scrape off the product from the copper and mass out the final mass of the dry and clean copper.

2.  Conservation of Mass presentation  –

a) Flaming Flask Demo –  implications to the Limiting Reagent

– incomplete and complete combustion

Period 3b  –

1.  Conservation of Mass presentation  –

– incomplete and complete combustion – implications to the Limiting Reagent

b) Hydrogen balloon explosions in LGI

When do we make good cake?

Conservation of Mass Notes:

Stoichiometry works because of the Law of Conservation of Mass.
Because of Antoine Lavoisier and the Modern Atomic Theory by John Dalton, atoms are neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions and are just rearranged into different ratios of elements in compounds.  These ratios are a How Many Value!

Stiochiometry also works because of the Law of definite proportions.
Because of Joseph Proust and the Modern Atomic Theory, each compound has its own unique arrangement of atoms called a chemical formula which results in each unique compound having a unique percent by mass of each type of atom (element) in its molecule.  This is due to compound having a unique ratio of atoms in their chemical formulas.  Chemical formulas are a How many Value!

Conservation of Mass —-> Balancing provides the mole ratios needed to predict outcomes in chemical reactions. But these ratios of how many also provide chemistry the amounts needed to make the most efficient reactions = GOOD CAKE!

Cyclohexane combusts more completely when poured out because the ratio of cyclohexane to oxygen is 1 : 9.           We get those ratios when we balance.

1 C6H12  (l)  +    9 O2 (g)    —–>   6 CO(g)   +   6 H2O (g)    +   Energy

That means 9 O2 molecules per 1 C6H12  is needed to maximize the reaction.  The cyclohexane was not getting the right ratio in the flask but achieved the right ratio when it was poured out.

B.  Hydrogen Balloon Demo:

2 H2 (g)  +  O2 (g)  —>   2 H20  +   Energy

This means  2 H2 molecules per 1 O2  is needed to maximize the reaction and thus maximize the energy released. If this ratios in the reaction are not  2 to 1 then the reaction will be less efficient with some unreacted reactants and a lower amount of energy released.  Sometime the reaction will not even run at all if the ratios are poor.

Conservation of Mass Presentation:

Last Year – Period 2 : Hydrogen Balloon Explosion Comparison:

2 H2 (g)  +  O2 (g)  —>   2 H20  +   Energy

Last Year – Period 4 : Hydrogen Balloon Explosion Comparison:

2 H2 (g)  +  O2 (g)  —>   2 H20  +   Energy

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10/21 – Friday’s Homework: –

1. Please the Flaming Tube demo video below.  This demo is what the calculations in the preceding lecture are based. What is the Limiting Reagent in this demo?  Why isn’t the flame coming out of the tube and burning my room into oblivion?  I will do this demo in class Monday.

2. Please view the Limiting reagent Lecture that teaches the chart method of calculating the limiting reagent. Complete side ONLY with me. How could this method made last night’s homework easier?

Limiting reagent intro demo new worksheet.pdf

3.   Please complete Stiochiometry 3 – ICE Table Molarity Salsa.pdf  which is really the second problem the homework Last night (Stiochiometry 3 – Molarity limiting reagent.pdf).  So please redo that limiting reagent problem using the ICE Table method. Don’t be mad that this way is simpler!!!

*Remember that moles will be calculated through Molarity (M * V(in Liters) = moles.
Molarity ( mole / Liter )   X   Volume (Liter)  = mole

Stoichiometry 3 – ICE Table Molarity Salsa.pdf

Stoichiometry 3 – ICE Table Molarity Salsa key BEST p.pdf

Period 2 only

a) Mass of copper reacted
b) Mass of Iodine reacted
c) Mass of product (salt of copper and iodine)
d) empirical formula of copper and iodine
e) Balanced chemical reaction of the synthesis of copper and iodine.
f) Theoretical grams of the product produced.
g) Percent Yield.

It may be helpful to view my video below that explains these calculations and skills from Lab 7!

5. Please Complete the following this weekend on the Formal lab write-up:

I have posted the requirements and an example of a formal written lab below the videos below..

a) Title Page

b) Background

c) Materials

d) Procedure

You will have a link to a shared doc for this lab. Please use it to start the lab.

I have posted the requirements and an example of a formal written lab below the videos below..

1 : The Flaming Tube Demofor the lecture below!

2 : Limiting Reagent Lecture –  Teaches the chart method!

3 : Lab 7 review –  This might help with your calculations!

End of week 8 well sort of unless you need to read the lab requirements below…

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Lab 7 – Synthesis of Copper Iodide (and determination of the empirical Formula of copper iodide)

Lab 7 – Synthesis of Copper Iodide.pdf

This Lab will be our first formal lab.  I am giving out a data worksheet to keep you organized in your data collection but it will not be handed in.  You will write a data section and calculation section in your formal lab write-up that will be in a google doc that will be shared to you in next couple of days.

Cu (s)  +  I2 (g)  —>  Cu? I?

Objectives:  1. To determine the empirical formula of the salt (product).

2. To determine the percent yield of the salt.

The lab will be written up in a shared google doc according the following rubric:

LAB 7 WRITE- UP REQUIREMENTS:

Formal Lab write-ups Examples:

AP Chemistry Example

HERE IS ANOTHER EXAMPLE (link to a past AP student’s lab last year)

I am requiring these sections below to be titled and included in your lab report but you are making this lab your own.  Although we did the same data collection and experiment, you are to make your lab unique in the lab write-up.  You will spin this lab to your interests by writing a unique background that will cover a least a page single spaced or 2 pages double spaced.  Use this opportunity to research something that may relate to your experiment.  This is something that you will bring back into your discussion in your conclusion.  This could really be anything related to your experiment or the Fast Plants BUT you must direct your discussion to your Question and then Hypothesis.

1: Title Page – Your name, Date, Title of experiment

2:  Background – Your background is like a literary review of the topic in a published study. I am not asking you to write a term paper on the Fast Plant but I am asking you to write an essay on the ANYTHING that is remotely related to this investigation.  Develop your Background so that your discussion eventually LEADS to a Question that you will test with your Hypothesis.  Write it as a prosecutor would deliver their opening statement to set the stage for their argument. I know this is open ended but this is how you make this lab your own.  Do make this a cohesive piece of writing and you may probably need to investigate this information.  At the end of the lab I will ask for your resources, so make note of where you are gathering information. DO NOT MAKE THIS a bunch of unrelated ideas or facts.  I gave you some example below from past students of mine so take a look to get a feel of what I am asking. This part of your lab should be 1 page single spaced or 2 pages double spaced.

3:  Objectives/Hypothesis: We normally use objectives here instead of Hypothesis as we are trying to find something.

4.  Materials: List all chemicals, equipment and tools used.

5: Procedure:  Step by step instructions on how you would complete this experiment. Please bullet this section!
A good procedure is one that another could easily follow to repeat the experiment successfully.

6:  Data:   Graphs, Data Tables, etc.
Please make a Data table, like the one’s you have had from my handout of other labs that include
those values that you actually measure AND those that you calculate for.

* You need to pay close attention to units, significant figures , and precision of equipment.

* You should provide the actual ratios (non-rounded) to use in your error analysis.

7: Calculations and Chemical Formulas:   On a separate page, provide all calculations and chemical
formulas that are pertinent to the lab.  You could do this neatly on
piece of paper and then scan or take a picture with your phone and                                                                                                            insert into the shared doc.  No separate piece of paper that is NOT                                                                                                              inserted will be accepted.

*Example: Your percent yield calculation requires a balanced chemical formula that will be determined                                                                         from your empirical formula of copper Iodide.

8: Results:  Summarize your data, but do not make conclusion statements. This will be a short section.  A
couple sentences will usually suffice.  This summary will only report the most important information
that coincides with the objectives written.

In your lab conclusions, your first paragraph was really a results section.

9: Conclusion:  This section will be heavily scrutinized.  Here is where you get dirty with the data. What is the data inferring about copper iodide?  What are the implications or possibilities because of your outcomes.  What could be further investigated?
If you get vague you will lose points. You must fully develop your points and support them with logic! Remember that many experiments are built from the conclusions of other labs.  This means your points in your discussion will not be facts but just very good possible explanations.  Another experiment would be needed to test the validity of these statements. However,  if you support your statements with solid logic from evidence collected in the lab then you are addressing all the possible implications from YOUR WORK or experiment.  In this point of your conclusion you will be MAKING A LEAP from your work based on data analysis to a POSSIBLE implication Chemically for copper iodide.  If you do this by tying the Background discussion with your discussion here it will result in very will impressive lab write – up!

A:  DATA analysis:  complete detailed analysis of the the hard data collected.
This has nothing to do with error analysis!!! What does the data suggest?  The data “suggests” or there is a                           possibility. Use the Results section and objectives as a guide  here.  What was your formula?  Is it                                           empirical? Molecular?  What is ratio represent  chemically?  How strong is the evidence that your formula                           is what you think it is?  How does the percent yield support or not support your ratio here?

B:   A LEAP:  You need to explain what the data means in terms of the chemistry of the compound. This                                                                  really the reason for the investigation.  Fully develop your thoughts based on your evidence.
Be logical and make your case as if you were a lawyer trying to convince a jury of your argument.

C:  Error Analysis:  What are the possible limitations in your lab.  Every experiment has limitations. What
were the limitations in this experiment. What could be done to narrow our approach to better the
questions you laid out in this lab.