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   Q2 : Week 4 – 12/5 – 12/9

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Jump toThursday Homework
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12/1 – Thursday – B Day – 2, 3b Lab/4                                                                                                              

Main focus –     

                                                                                                                                               

a) Acid Base Test 2 

 
Period 2: –

1. Acid Base Test 2                                                                             

Period 3b/4 –

1. Classwork Form  

2. Acid Base Test  2   

 

                                                                                                 

 1: CLASSWORK GROUP FORM – PERIOD 3b TODAY only:

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12/1 – Thursday Homework: – 

 

1. Please Complete the Pre-Tum Lab Form (posted above) if you did complete it in class Wednesday or today.
     

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12/2 – Friday – A Day – 2/3a Lab, 4        

Main focus

a) Lab 13 – (Formal Lab Write-up) – Lab note -taking – Lab design of a Back titration

                                         

Period 3:  

1. Review of test 2 – mistake in my key

2. Note-taking for Lab 13  – Remember to heat crushed tablets with acid to drive off dissolved CO2                                                                          

Period 4: 

1. Review of test 2 – Mistake in my Key

2. Note-taking for Lab 13Remember to heat crushed tablets with acid to drive off dissolved CO2       

3. Standardization of Strong Base with KHP   

 
 
 

______________________

Lab 1 3 – TUMS Titration – Determination of mg of active ingredient

                                                  
In Tums we are dealing with the active ingredient, calcium carbonate, CaCO3.  Watch out this antacid is an insoluble salt that is found in limestone (sediment rock) and sea shells AND CHALK!!!!   It is an antacid because of its basic anion, the carbonate ion, CO3-2 .  It is a base because it can accept 2 H+ ‘s (Bronsted-Lowry Base) or it can donate 2 pair of electrons (Lewis Base) to 2 H+ ‘s .
 
The reaction with carbonates involve probably the most important equilibrium reaction that we have in organic chemistry. Organic Chemistry chemical reactions that support and sustain life.  It specifically deals with the Carbon based molecules and the link to the carbon cycle, specifically CO2 (g) as the product of combustion and the reactant in photosynthesis!
 

The arrows up in the atmosphere are gas molecules of CO2 (g) while the other forms may be CO3-2 (aq), HCO3 -1 (aq), and H2CO3 (aq), or CaCO(s).

 

In our oceans the movement of carbon through the marine ecosystem can be stored as calcium carbonate, limestone, sedimentary rock or it becoming the shelter that marine organisms use for protection (phytoplankton, sea shells, coral reefs, etc). As the diagram illustrates these reactions are in equilibrium.

The Carbon cycle in out oceans is very similar to the carbon transport system in our blood , EXCEPT we do not make an insoluble precipitate, CaCO3 (s).

In our bodies we must get rid of the carbon dioxide that is released as a by – product of cellular respiration.  We dissolve the CO2 (g) in our plasma (water part of out blood) and because of fact that CO2 (g) is Lewis acid it lowers our blood pH which will force us to breath.
 
Not only does equilibrium system help transport CO2 (g) out of the body through the plasma it also serves an important blood buffer that keeps you blood at a pH of about 7.4.
 
Mechanism of how Carbonic acid  can be decomposed back into water!
 
 
Standardization of the Strong base in this back titration of TUMS.
In this analysis of the “active ingredient” of Tums ( CaCO3 ) we will need to use a strong base to titrate the excess HCl that was used to drive the reaction to completion:
 
                Net Ion:          2H+ (aq)   +   CaCO3 (s)   —>   CO2 (g)    +     H2O (l)   +   Ca+2
                                   Excess
The excess Strong Acid will drive the reaction to completion due to Le Chateliers Principle.  It also important to to have excess Strong Acid to react with all the CaCOthat will be mixed and “hidden” with the binder, coloring, flavor, and etc.  That is why it is important to crush the tablets (tabs!) with a mortar and pestle in order to expose all of the salt, CaCOto the acid.
 
Now after we add the excess acid we will have to Titrate this excess acid with a Strong Base. This lab produces incredibly accurate results ONLY IF OUR SOLUTIONS that we use ARE ACCURATE.  We are adding 0.04 moles of protons from the 100.0 ml of a 0.4 M HCl solution.  Because we are adding about 0.01 moles of extra protons from the strong acid we need to titrate the excess protons with a strong base AND that solution needs to verified or STANDARDIZED.  
 
I made a 0.5 M NaOH solution. I was very careful to make this solution BUT because strong Bases are very reactive that solution is definitely LOWER in concentration as the hydroxide reacts with the CO (Lewis Acid) in the air.  I used 20 grams of solid NaOH (.5 mole) dissolved in a 1 liter of solution to make a 0.50 M NaOH solution
BUT not all of the solid is NaOH as CO2  from the air will cause the NaOH to become Na2CO3. This also happens in solution.  Strong bases are carbon dioxide scrubbers that are used to remove it from space capsules.
 
                                                 2NaOH(s)    +     CO(g)     —–>  Na2CO     +     H2O
 
 Also NaOH is deliquescent which means it can absorb water from the air and start dissolving itself. This would add weight to the Base and dilute is quantity.
 
Because NaOH has these issues we need to verified or STANDARDIZE it with a weak acid that is not reactive and does not have these issues. A perfect solution to this (no pun intended!) is using KHP. Potassium Hydrogen Phalate.  
 
KHP, (KHC8H4O4) is excellent to standardize a Strong Base with because it 
 
                                            1. Weak Acid – thus does not react unless forced to by a Strong Base
                                            2.  Is a solid –  we eliminate volume errors when making this solution
                                            3.  It has a large molecular mass (204 g/mol) – measurement errors with a large
                                                                                                                         molecular mass will not lead 
                                                                                                                         to large mole errors.
 
 
                       Net Ion:  HC8H4O4–     +     OH–      —->    C8H4O4– 2       +       H2O
 
You will find from this standardization that my solution of 0.50 M NaOH is less but we need to know its exact value to proceed with the lab.

Today’s Tums Lesson:

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12/2 – Friday’s Homework: –

1.  Please Complete the worksheet below and review with the key.

       Analytical Acid Base.pdf
       View Download
       
       Analytical Acid Base key p.pdf
       View Download

 

2.  Begin your write-up of Lab 13:  I have emailed you a link to a shared doc to start the following.

      You only need to complete what is in BLUE.

 a) Background –  A full page single typed.  There is so much to write about. Do not forget to direct your discussion toward the Objective (which is to determine the milligrams of calcium carbonate in TUMS).

 
 b) Objective – What is purpose of this lab?                                                                                                                                                   
 c) Detailed written procedure There are 3 parts to your procedure. 
  ( I will be scrutinizing your procedure and the conclusion)
 
  The procedure has 3 parts!:
          1) Design of the lab.
 
Started this today. Please watch the lecture posted above to complete this part of the procedure in your shared doc. THIS ALONG WITH YOUR BACKGROUND and OBJECTIVE is Due MONDAY. YOU NEED TO WATCH THE ENTIRE VIDO TILL THE END to understand the Standardization part.  
 
         2) Preparation of chemicals necessary to perform Back – Titration  on 2 tabs of
             750 mg TUMS (calcium carbonate = active ingredient)
 
        3) Actual Steps taken to perform the lab in order to calculate the mg of active ingredient in 2 tabs of TUMs.
 
                  a) Standardization
 
   d) calculationsNeatly presented – I  have a video below that reviews how to complete the     
                                 calculations below.
       
So far you only have the calculations for the standardization and the calculations for the making of the solutions needed in your design.
 
   e) data table (typed) – not yet
 
DESIGN YOUR DATA TABLE, BASED ON YOUR STEPS in the procedure that describes what you need to do to completely determine the milligrams of calcium carbonate in your TUMS tablet.
This will help you understand the Lab better and give you a head start to what we will do Monday when we Titrate the TUMs. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       End of week 3! 
 

 

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 12/5 – Monday – B Day – 2, 3b Lab/4                                    Jump toMonday Homework

 Main focus –                                                                                                                                                         
                                                    

      a) To review the the TUMS Lab design of back titrations and solutions needed.

     b) To review the Standardization of NaOH with KHP.

     c) To complete the standardization of NaOH with KHP.

 

 Period 2:

1. Complete the review of the Standardization of NaOH. 

2. The Standardization of NaOH with KHP Titration.

Period 3b/4:

1. Complete the review of the design of the TUMS Lab

2.  Complete the review of the Standardization of NaOH.  

3.  The Standardization of NaOH with KHP Titration.

                                                                                                                    

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Today’s Notes:

Standardization of the Strong base in this back titration of TUMS.
In this analysis of the “active ingredient” of Tums ( CaCO3 ) we will need to use a strong base to titrate the excess HCl that was used to drive the reaction to completion:
 
                Net Ion:      2H+ (aq)   +   CaCO3 (s)   —>   CO2 (g)    +     H2O (l)   +   Ca+2
                              Excess
The excess Strong Acid will drive the reaction to completion due to Le Chateliers Principle.  It also important to to have excess Strong Acid to react with all the CaCOthat will be mixed and “hidden” with the binder, coloring, flavor, and etc.  That is why it is important to crush the tablets (tabs!) with a mortar and pestle in order to expose all of the salt, CaCOto the acid.
 
Now after we add the excess acid we will have to Titrate this excess acid with a Strong Base. This lab produces incredibly accurate results ONLY IF OUR SOLUTIONS that we use ARE ACCURATE.  We are adding 0.04 moles of protons from the 100.0 ml of a 0.4 M HCl solution.  Because we are adding about 0.01 moles of extra protons from the strong acid we need to titrate the excess protons with a strong base AND that solution needs to verified or STANDARDIZED.  
 
I made a 0.5 M NaOH solution. I was very careful to make this solution BUT because strong Bases are very reactive that solution is definitely LOWER in concentration as the hydroxide reacts with the CO (Lewis Acid) in the air.  I used 20 grams of solid NaOH (.5 mole) dissolved in a 1 liter of solution to make a 0.50 M NaOH solution
BUT not all of the solid is NaOH as CO2  from the air will cause the NaOH to become Na2CO3. This also happens in solution.  Strong bases are carbon dioxide scrubbers that are used to remove it from space capsules.
 
                                                 2NaOH(s)    +     CO(g)     —–>  Na2CO     +     H2O
 
 Also NaOH is deliquescent which means it can absorb water from the air and start dissolving itself. This would add weight to the Base and dilute is quantity.
 
Because NaOH has these issues we need to verified or STANDARDIZE it with a weak acid that is not reactive and does not have these issues. A perfect solution to this (no pun intended!) is using KHP. Potassium Hydrogen Phalate.  
 
KHP, (KHC8H4O4) is excellent to standardize a Strong Base with because it 
 
                                            1. Weak Acid – thus does not react unless forced to by a Strong Base
                                            2.  Is a solid –  we eliminate volume errors when making this solution
                                            3.  It has a large molecular mass (204 g/mol) – measurement errors with a large
                                                                                                                         molecular mass will not lead 
                                                                                                                         to large mole errors.
 
 
                       Net Ion:     HC8H4O4–     +     OH–      —->    C8H4O4– 2       +       H2O
 
You will find from this standardization that my solution of 0.50 M NaOH is less but we need to know its exact value to proceed with the lab.

 _____________________________________________________

12/5 – Monday’s Homework: – 

 

1.  Please continue with the formal write-up of the TUMs lab.  You should be able to get farther with the procedure as everyone was able Standardize the Strong Base to verify the strength of the base.

I made a 0.50 M NaOH solution but one group today found it was 0.482 M which makes sense as the base solution is very reactive and deliquescent.

a) Background –  A full page single typed.  There is so much to write about. Do not forget to direct your discussion toward the Objective (which is to determine the milligrams of calcium carbonate in TUMS).
 
b) Detailed written procedure – There are 3 parts to your procedure. 
    ( I will be scrutinizing your procedure and the conclusion)
 
The procedure has 3 parts- 
    1) Design of the lab.
 
    2) Preparation of chemicals necessary to perform Back – Titration  on 2 tabs of
        750 mg TUMS (calcium carbonate = active ingredient)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Please use my video below to help with this below if needed: 
         a)  KHP solution – used solid reagent
         b)  Excess acid solution – started with 1.o M HCl stock solution
         c)  Strong Base solution (for back titration)  – started with solid reagent
 
    3) Actual Steps taken to perform the lab in order to calculate the mg of active ingredient in 2 tabs of TUMs.
 
            a) Standardization
            b) tablet preparation
            c) Titrations, etc.
 
c) calculations – Neatly presented – . INCLUDE ALL REACTIONS!!!
        
d) data table (typed) INCLUDING SUBSCRIPTS!!!!!!!
 
           Example:     HC8H4O4–    NOT    HC8H4O4-
 
DESIGN YOUR DATA TABLE, BASED ON YOUR STEPS in the procedure that describes what you need to do to completely determine the milligrams of calcium carbonate in your TUMS tablet.
This will help you understand the Lab better and give you a head start to what we will do Monday when we Titrate the TUMs. 
 
e) Results – 
f) Conclusion – Please describe all errors and completely analyze you errors.  It is a very accurate lab, all volumetric titrations are if the done precisely with standardized chemicals, However they are numerous errors to discuss and analyze.
 
Also try to discuss why your tablets milligrams of CaCO3 was not 750 mg in terms of the company that makes them (GSK).
 
g) Sources

                                                                         

 

Solution Review for the Tums lab:

End of Monday!

 

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12/6 – Tuesday – A Day – 2/3a Lab, 4                                                                     

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                          

a) To perform a back titration in determining the milligrams of  calcium carbonate in TUMS – Lab 13

b) To Complete the calculations for the TUMS lab. To determine the number of milligrams of calcium carbonate pr tablet.

Period 2,3a:

1. Complete the Standardization of NaOH if necessary – Compare the Standardized molarity
2. Crush 2 tabs of Tums, add water, measure 100 ml of 0.40 M HCl, add to crushed tabs, 
3. Back Titrate.                                                                                                                                                                          4. Calculate the mg of CaCO3 per tablet.   

  

Period 4:
1. Complete the Standardization of NaOH if necessary – Compare the Standardized molarity
2. Crush 2 tabs of Tums, add water, measure 100 ml of 0.40 M HCl, add to crushed tabs, 
3. Back Titrate. 
4. Calculate the mg of CaCO3 per tablet.   

 

                                                         

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12/6 – Tuesday’s Homework: – 

1. Please complete the calculations for Lab 13 to determine the mg of CaCO3 in each tablet of TUMS. You may need to view my videos below that reviews the calculations to complete.
 
 2: Complete the Procedure (3 parts)  AND Calculations for the Formal write-up in the shared drive. The lab write-up requirements are posted above under Monday’s homework. Remember that all calculations and chemical reactions need to be written and presented neatly.                                                                                         

TUM Lab Calculations Review – 

 

 

Screencast TUMS Lab Calculations Review – An older video that reviews calculations 

END OF TUESDAY.  

 

  _________________________________________________________________________                               Jump toWednesday Homework

12/7 – Wednesday – B Day – 2, 3b Lab/4 

Main focus –        

 

    a) To calculate the milligrams of calcium carbonate in a tablet of Tum

    b) To make solutions by dilution and by gravimetric technique

    c) T0 begin the design of the Lab 14 – Determination of aspirin in a Bayer Tablet.

 

Period 2 –                

1. Tums Lab Solution making skills.

2. Tums Labs Lab error analysis  

3. Aleve Form – This is based on a Back Titration (just like you would to for the next Lab).

Period 3b/4 –        

1. Tums Lab Solution making skills.

2. Tums Labs Lab error analysis  

3. Aleve Form – This is based on a Back Titration (just like you would to for the next Lab).

Aleve Form Classwork Work together in Lab groups to complete the following Form that will help understand your TUMs lab and help with the aspirin lab that we will be the next lab..
    
Please use the hardcopies of the form to help complete.  This form is based on a design of a lab for another over the counter medication that will be very similar to the aspirin (BUT NOT THE SAME) that we will begin soon.  Remember that you will be using a back titration as the active ingredient in Advil  (Naproxen) is a weak (acid or base). Use your procedure in the TUMS lab to help solve this form which is about the calculations and steps needed to complete the quality control lab of the active ingredient of AleveTM .
 
The form will be on auto- reply and you have 3 replies individually.  I will hand out the handwritten when everyone has completed their responses from both classes.                                                                                                                          
Quality Control Aleve Form.pdf
View Download

                                                                                                                               

 
                                                                                                                       

 
ALEVE Quality Control Lab FORM:

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12/7 – Wednesday Homework: –

1. Complete the TUMS lab with a Results section and a conclusion.  Conclusions DO NOT INCLUDE ANOTHER PROCEDURE!! Your conclusion will include the the explanation of the data written in your results sections. It will include error analysis. This is a very accurate lab but there are places in the procedure that error COULD of occurred.  Please try to evaluate those possible instances AND HOW THEY explain YOUR results.  How have the amount of errors in this experiment been controlled or limited?  What was done to maximize accuracy? Do not just state this was an accurate lab. You need to explain why!
 
Everyone determined that the amount of active ingredient was UNDER the reported value (750 mg per tablet).  What are the implications of this quality control experiment considering that our errors have been controlled or limited in our design of the experiment.  What does your outcome as the quality control chemist mean for the consumer or the company.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Jump toThursday Homework
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12/8 – Thursday – A Day – 2/3a Lab, 4                                                                                                         

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                    

a) To complete the review of the TUMS lab through the class Aleve activity (form)

b) To begin the design of Lab 14.

 
Period 2/3 – 

1. Review of the Alleve Form:

Volumetric Titration Practice Aleve Key p.pdf
View Download

2.  A review of the reactions in Lab 14.

3.  Lab 14 – Aspirin Lab – Lab groups will work together to begin to design the lab.                        I have sent the link out to everyone for the Google doc for this Lab .                                                       

Period 4 –

1. Review of the Alleve Form

2.  A review of the reactions in Lab 14.

3.  Lab 14 – Aspirin Lab – Lab groups will work together to begin to design the lab.                         I have sent the link out to everyone for the Google doc for this Lab .         

  

                                                                                                 

______________________

Lab 14 – The Determination of aspirin in a Bayer tablet

You will be graded on how your lab group will design a lab (back titration) to determine the milligrams of aspirin in a single bayer tablet.  You will design the lab in the same fashion as I designed the TUMS lab using YOUR arbitrary values that you design.. The Alleve form you completed was an assignment that was a theoretical lab that determined the milligrams of another active ingredient.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Molecular Mass of Aspirin180.158 g/mole

You will determine the milligrams of aspirin by using 2 tablets of Bayer. Please look at the molecular structures of aspirin below to begin your lab design.  Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) gets hydrolyzed into 2 components in water.                                                                                                                                                                                             
This is a slow reaction that can be increased by temperature and excess chemical (Le Chateliers principle).
Identification of organic acids can done by Table R in our Regents Chemistry reference tables:                                   
The mechanism for the hydrolysis of aspirin is as follows:
 

 

 Due to the chemistry of aspirin there are some additional steps you should be aware of.
 
1. Aspirin does not dissolve very well in water due to the hydrophobic benzene ring thus we will use 20 ml of ethanol CH3CH2OH added to the crushed tablets.  We will add a stirring bar and stir the solution for a few minutes.
 
2. After adding ethanol, you will add 3 drops of phenolphthalein to a small erlenmeyer flask.  
 
3. Add the excess chemical that you designed. Careful with the stoichiometry.
 
4.  HEAT THE SOLUTION IN A HOT WATER BATH! DO NOT HEAT DIRECTLY as ethanol is flammable!
 
5. Observe the color change of the phenolphthalien. 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

 
 Lab 14 – Aspirin Lab Requirements:
a:  Using the Google Doc that is shared individually that I have sent, start determining the procedure necessary to determine the amount of aspirin in a Bayer tablet.
 
                                            USE THE TUMS LAB AS A GUIDE and the Aleve form as your guide!
 
b:  Understanding Lab 13 will help here. You need to figure out what chemicals you need and what their Molarities will need to be to successfully titrate aspirin.  
 
You will need to complete preliminary calculations that will determine the theoretical amount of the other chemicals needed to perform the titration, in the same fashion as we did with Lab 13.  
    
c:  You will perform the titration and determine the milligrams of the active ingredient per tablet as a lab group in a later date.
 
d:  I will look over your procedure and preliminary calculations and give you the go ahead to  perform the Lab test.
 
e: In your Shared Lab group Doc, I expect
 
            In this Lab I am require the following:

 

                           1. Title Page.

                           2. Objective.

                           3. materials

                           4.a detailed procedure

                                      a) Design of lab – (arbitrary values decided on)

                                      b) Calculations and steps to make certain solutions required in Lab.

                                      c) Steps in the actual lab

                            5. Data Table

                            6)   typed calculations page that report the milligrams of aspirin. Tablet the final result.                                             (DO  NOT  FORGET ANY CHEMICAL REACTIONS!)

No Background,  NO Results section and NO Conclusion!   

 

______________________

12/8 – Thursday Homework: – 

1.  Please complete the TUMS Lab. 

Period 2 only:

2. Please start your design of the Aspirin Lab.  You must have a plan in place Before you start making solutions. 

 

 ________________________________________________________________                                  Jump toFriday Homework

12/9 – Friday – B Day 2, 3b Lab/4 

Main focus – 
     
a) To design a lab (14) that will determine the mg of aspirin in a tablet of Bayer.

 

Period 2 – 

 

1.  Lab 14 – Aspirin Lab – Lab groups will work together to begin to design the lab.                                I  have sent the link out to everyone for the Google doc for this Lab .   

YOU WILL PERFORM THE LAB NEXT MONDAY ONLY!!!!!                                                                                                                             

Period 3b/4 –

 

1.  A review of the reactions and the couple of the different steps with Lab 14.

2.  Lab 14 – Aspirin Lab – Lab groups will work together to begin to design the lab.                                 I have sent the link out to everyone for the Google doc for this Lab .         

YOU WILL PERFORM THE LAB NEXT TUESDAY ONLY!!!!!         

 ______________________

Lab 14 – The Determination of aspirin in a Bayer tablet

You will be graded on how your lab group will design a lab (back titration) to determine the milligrams of aspirin in a single bayer tablet.  You will design the lab in the same fashion as I designed the TUMS lab using YOUR arbitrary values that you design..  Last weeks form of Alleve you completed an assignment that was a theoretical lab that determined the milligrams of another active ingredient.  You may want to revisit that form or its key. Hint: Both are weak acids. 

 

Molecular Mass of Aspirin180.158 g/mole

You will determine the milligrams of aspirin by using 2 tablets of Bayer. Please look at the molecular structures of aspirin below to begin your lab design.  Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) gets hydrolyzed into 2 components in water.                                                                                                                                                                                             
This is a slow reaction that can be increased by temperature and excess chemical (Le Chateliers principle).
Identification of organic acids can done by Table R in our Regents Chemistry reference tables:                                   
The mechanism for the hydrolysis of aspirin is as follows:
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  
 1. Aspirin does not dissolve very well in water due to the hydrophobic benzene ring thus we will use 20 ml of ethanol CH3CH2OH added to the crushed tablets.  We will add a stirring bar and stir the solution for a few minutes.
 
2. After adding ethanol, you will add 3 drops of phenolphthalein to a small erlenmeyer flask.  
 
3. Add the excess chemical that you designed. Careful with the stoichiometry.
 
4.  HEAT THE SOLUTION IN A HOT WATER BATH! DO NOT HEAT DIRECTLY as ethanol is flammable!
 
5. Observe the color change of the phenolphthalien. 
 
                                                                                                                                                     
What does aspirin do?  It block the productions of prostaglandins.  It is another example of NSAIDS                                                                                                        Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs  
 

 
 Cyclooxygenase (COX) ——–>  aspirin blocks production of  ——>    Prostaglandins
 aspirin is a competitive inhibitor
 
                                                       Thromboxane                                          Prostacyclin
                                                   formation of clotting                          reduction of blood clotting
                                                 narrowing of blood vessels                 dilation of blood vessels
                                                 -Leads to less blood clotting
                                                 -Leads to less inflammation 
 
 
Lab 14 – Aspirin Lab Test Requirements:
a:  Using the Google Doc that is shared individually that I have sent, start determining the procedure necessary to determine the amount of aspirin in a Bayer tablet.
 
                                            USE THE TUMS LAB AS A GUIDE and the Aleve form as your guide!
 
b:  Understanding Lab 13 will help here. You need to figure out what chemicals you need and what their Molarities will need to be to successfully titrate aspirin.  
 
You will need to complete preliminary calculations that will determine the theoretical amount of the other chemicals needed to perform the titration, in the same fashion as we did with Lab 13.  
    
c:  You will perform the titration and determine the milligrams of the active ingredient per tablet as a lab group in a later date.
 
d:  I will look over your procedure and preliminary calculations and give you the go ahead to  perform the Lab test.
 
e: In your Shared Lab group Doc, I expect
 
            In this Lab Test I am require the following:

 

                           1. Title Page.

                           2. Objective.

                           3. materials

                           4.a detailed procedure

                                      a) Design of lab – (arbitrary values decided on)

                                      b) Calculations and steps to make certain solutions required in Lab.

                                      c) Steps in the actual lab

                            5.  typed calculations page that report the milligrams of aspirin. Tablet the final result. (DO                                             NOT  FORGET ANY CHEMICAL REACTIONS!)

No Background,  Results section, Data Table or Conclusion necessary!   

 

__________________________________________________

12/9 – Friday’s Homework: –

1. Complete the TUMS lab.  The lab requirements for the formal write-up is posted above under Monday’s Homework.  Please complete the Lab write-up in the shared doc that I have previously sent you. 

MOST students asked for an extension so everyone can till next week to complete.

2. Complete your design of Lab 14 in the shared doc that I am sending you.