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   Q2 : Week 6 – 12/18 – 12/22

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– Regarding Homework assignments – IF you cannot complete the assigned homework before school the next day you must email me.

LAB 10, 11, 12 are Late!!!  

________________________________________________________________________                          Jump toMonday Homework /  top    12/18 – Monday – A Day – 2, 3a Lab/4   

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                         
                                                  

    a) To complete Lab 15 – Redox Volumetric Titration.

    b)  To Review more complex Redox reactions and applications.  

                                   

Period 2/3a:  Collect Balancing Redox Reactions, Motrin Test, Stoichiometry 7                                                                                                                                                                  

1Lab 15 – Start and Complete

a) Standardize

b) Titrate the Oxalic Acid

Stoichoimetry 7 – 2010B AP Key p.pdf
View Download

2.   Review Redox reactions/Demo: 

       a) Reactivity of metals demo video —> Penny Demo.

         b) Tarnished Silver Tray

         c) Copper and Nitric Acid demo                                                                                                                                                   

Period 4: Collect Balancing Redox Reactions, Motrin Test, Stoichiometry 7

1  Collect Data for Lab 15.   

a) Standardize

b) Titrate the Oxalic Acid

2.   Review Redox reactions/Demo: 

       a) Reactivity of metals demo video —> Penny Demo.

         b) Tarnished Silver Tray

         c) Copper and Nitric Acid demo

Reactivity series Lab  – Acid added to metals (the action of acid is actually a redox reaction):

 
                                               Metal(s)  +   2 HCl    =>    Metal Chloride (aq)  +  H2 (g)
 
                             Ex:    Mg (s)  +  2HCl   =>  MgCl2 (aq)   +   H2 (g)
 
             NET ION:      Mg(s)  +     2H+   =>  Mg+2  +   H2 (g) 
 
The proton is a heat sinking missile for the loosely held electrons of the metal and it cause the oxidation (loss of electron) of the metal and thus H+ is the oxidizing agent.  It however it not strong enough to pull electrons from all metals.  The standard reduction potential table OR unfortunately Table J can tell us the reactivity of the proton of the metal.

 

 

Reactivity of metals in HCl and water Demo/lab:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The reactivity of metals in acid and water (their ability to oxidize) can be predicted by both Standard Reduction Table and the Table J.

 

 

Nitric Acid and Copper Demo:

Oxidation of a Post 1981 – Penny Demo –
Penny Demo:
 
Using our understanding spontaneity we can hollow out a post 1981 penny.
 
The proton is heat sinking missile for the loosely held electrons of the metal and it cause the oxidation (loss of electron) of the metal and thus H+ is the oxidizing agent.  It however it not strong enough to pull electrons from all metals.

 

 

 

____________________________________________________________________________________________________                                                            Lab 15 – The Determination of the Concentration Oxalic  Acid                                                                          by a Volumetric Redox Titration

Leafy greens, legumes, and most other plant foods contain a nutrient called oxalate or oxalic acid. It’s a naturally occurring chemical you get through your diet. The body also produces it as waste. Foods rich in oxalates also contain other nutrients that your body needs for good health.  

When oxalic acid mixes with other minerals, it forms oxalate. People regularly use the two terms interchangeably to refer to the same thing.  Your body produces oxalate and also gets it from food sources. Vitamin C changes to oxalate when your body processes it.

When you consume foods containing oxalate, the compound attaches itself to minerals to make other minerals. These include iron oxalate and calcium oxalate. The process happens in the colon most of the time and sometimes in the kidneys.

The body then removes the elements through stool or urine. For people with high levels of sensitivity, diets high in oxalates can cause kidney stones. They also increase their risk of other health problems.

WebMd

Lab 15 – Titration of Oxalic acid.pdf
 
                                                                                                                                                                                       MnO4–    is a purple compound due to the Mn+7 ion and when it gets reduced (gains electrons by
                                                                                                                                                                                     acting as an oxidizing agent) and Mn+2 is colorless.    This is significant as we can use the color change to reach an equivalence point IN TERMS of Electrons to end the redox titration.  That is when the purple persists from the titrant (MnO4– ) for at least 30 seconds all moles  the electrons from the oxalic acid have been transferred to the MnO4.
         
 We are not using an acid base indicator!  We are using a property of metal ions that have high charges = crystal field theory.  Crystal field theory provides colors to metals that have high coulombic attractions. Metals that a have high enough charge to create this affect are transitional. 
 
                                                                 +7
                                                                MnO4–    ——>    Mn+2
                                                                purple                   colorless
 
Because the KMnO4 is a very strong oxidizing agent (1.52 volts) we need to standardize it to know exactly what its concentration is BEFORE we titrate the oxalic acid because it can pull electrons from many chemicals (that are below it and to the right in the standard reduction table).

The Lab has 2 parts:

1) Standardize the KMnO4 solution (0.02 M) with 10.0 ml of Fe+2 solution (0.100M)

2) Determine the concentration of the oxalic acid solution by titrating the standardized solution of KMnO4.

Lab 15 : Review 

 

___________________________________________________                                                                  jump to:  top                                           12/18 – Monday Homework: –

               
*Some students have asked for the net ion reaction to the Aspirin Lab:
C7H6O3                +    C2H4O2            +   2OH–                         C7H5O3         +      C2H3O2    +   2H20
                                                                                                                                                                                                             

1. Please View the class lecture on crystal field theory and Spectrophotometry.                                                                
2. Please complete the AP free response question below (no Grodski changes!) and review with the key below.  You will need to view my tutorial video to follow along with me using the worksheet below to completely understand the spectrophotometry procedure. 
Can you guess what your next lab will include?
 
 And yes I am collecting this worksheet!
                                                                                                                                                                                                     
Spectrophotometry AP question 2 – 2003-1.pdf
View Download
                                                                                                                                                                                   Spectrophotometry AP question 2 – 2003 AP Key.pdf
View Download

                                                                                                                                                                                                       

 3. Complete the form. 

                                                                                                                                                                 

1: Crystal Field theory and Spectrophotometry class lecture:

 

2: Spectrophotometry worksheet review lecture:

 

 
3: Spectrophotometry Intro Form:

End of Thursday….

_________________________________________________________________________                      Jump toTuesday Homework /top          12/12 – Tuesday – B Day – 2, 3b/4 Lab                                             

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                         

a) To Review the concept of Crystal Field Theory

b) To Review Spectrophotometry                                                                                                                  c) To begin Lab 16 – % copper in brass

  

Period 2: Collect stoichiometry 7 worksheet & spectrophotometry AP Question 2 

1. Another look at Standard Net potential Table with oxidizers and Table J

Table T with Net potential table 1718.pdf

– crystal field theory implication in color change in the lab – transitional metals

2. Final redox titration of lab 15 – 

– oxalic acid with unknown concentration with standardized KMNO4 

– final calculations/ hand in

3. Crystal Field Theory and Spectrophotometry Review – (if there is time).

Demo Review/ Nitric acid copper demo:                                                                     

Period 3b,4: Collect stoichiometry 7 worksheet & spectrophotometry AP Question 2 

1. Another look at Standard Net potential Table with oxidizers and Table J

Table T with Net potential table 1718.pdf

– crystal field theory implication in color change in the lab – transitional metals

2. Lab 15 – complete calculations.

3. Crystal Field Theory and Spectrophotometry Review

4.  Lab 16 begins – 

      a) dissolve 2 brass shot with nitric acid.

      b) Make serial dilutions

                                                                                                                    

 

Notes For the Crystal Field Theory:                                                                                                            

Crystal Field Theory – Explanation of colored solutions from transitional metal complexes 
         
 
Why was the Cu+2 ion that was produced by the oxidation of the nitrate ion in the nitric acid that was added to the copper in the demo yesterday produce a blue-green color?
 
Why does our blood which contains iron (Fe+3)  have a maroon color?
 
Why did the permanganate ion (MnO4-1) have a purple color in our Volumetric Redox Titration Lab ? 
                                                                                                                  Remember in the permanganate ion there is a Mn+7 ion.
 
Why are plants mostly green because the main photosynthetic pigment pigment in chloroplasts chlorophyll absorbs the blue and red part of the visible spectrum.  This is part of the negative theory of light (which I will review in a later date).
 

Gavin Acuri 2019
   This is an absorption spectrum from the pigments that were extracted from our Spinach Plants last year.

Notice the these combined pigments in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts ABSORB visible light in the Blue and Red parts of the visible spectrum and thus Green is transmitted back to our eyes.

The negative theory of light work with inks and paints.  
 Green paint is the result of the chemicals in the paint absorbing the red and blue parts of the spectrum due to their electron arrangements around the atoms in the molecules. 

Plants appear green because they are receiving green photons ( so that they can transmit them back to you).
 
What do plants look like when they do not get green photons?
 
The spectrophotometer above directs a full spectrum of white light at its target and measures what is missing.
 
Now Chlorophyll, a molecular compound, does not contain a transitional metal and it creates colors by a different theory that we will learn later in the year (pi – stacking). 
 
So what is special about transitional metals that create colored solutions?
 Transitional metals have properties that will lead to them absorbing parts of the visible light spectrum which results when their cations form complex ions.

1.  They are smaller atoms as they are “transitioning” into nonmetals.  They are positioned to the right of the Group 1 (Alkali Metals) and Group 2 (Alkaline Earth metals) and thus have more protons than the more reactive metals.

2.  They have multiple oxidation states with some of those oxidation states having large positive values (ex. Mn+7 in the permanganate ion).

3.  They have d orbitals that are not completely filled with electrons that allow for electron transitions. It is these d orbitals that get “split” into 2  distinct energy levels that allow for the the absorption of parts of the visible spectrum that produces the color we see in solutions.

So colors form transitional metal ions in water come from theses complex ions due to the very large Electrostatic Force (Coulombs Law) that draws the oxygen end of water (ligand) into the d orbitals of the metal ions. If the oxygen end is drawn directly into the d orbital it will destabilize (increase in energy) of those orbitals.  If the Oxygen end goes in between the d orbitals it does not increase the energy of the those electrons as much and thus the d orbitals which are normally the same energy are now split into 2 different energy levels.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Crystal field theory – Fe+2 solution reacts to Fe+3 with oxygen in flask.  Why is it getting cloudy?
                                                                                                                                                                                                      I have to make the  Fe+2  solution fresh each day. 
 
       3 hours later... (in a bad French accent)
 
As the Fe+2  becomes  Fe+3  the solution has a greater ability to absorb wavelengths of visible light because Fe+3 makes a complex ion with water that attracts water with such high Coulombic attractions that the water’s lone pair of electrons are pushed into the iron’s (Fe) d – orbitals directly interfering with some d – orbitals and not others based on their orientation in space.  The orbitals that “feel” the oxygens electrons become destabilized (increase in energy) and there is a spit in the energy level between these orbitals that were initially the same energy.
 
This splitting of d orbital energy levels provides a pathway for electrons to transition to higher energy levels when low energy visible light energy (photons) are absorbed.  Not all of the wavelengths of light are absorbed thus the ones that are not absorbed are what we see.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The spectrophotometer picks up the transmittance (which is the what is absorbed or missing from our eye.)

A photon of light of a certain wavelength is absorbed by electrons in lower energy d orbitals that can now transition into higher energy d orbitals (that split due to electrons being pulled directly into the orbitals). The absorbed photon is now missing from the entire spectrum of light that is illuminating the complex and the color shown is what is left.
 

Spectrophotometry Presentation:

Crystal Field Theory Presentation:

End of 

_________________________________________________________________________________                                                                                            Lab 16 – The Percent by Mass of Copper in Brass.

               a percent by mass lab – need initial mass at the beginning!
 
        a) Set up your spectrophotometer so that it is calibrated (to water in a cuvette), set to measure  
             a peak wavelength (with the .40M solution), 
 
        b) Make our serial dilutions to calibrate the spectrophotometer
 
                     0.40 M (Standard),   0.04M, 0.02 M,  0.01M,  0.005M  of  Cu(NO3)2
 
        c) Place your four cuvettes of KNOWN concentrations into the spectrophotometer from  
              lowest concentration to highest and type in your concentrations (with Keep button like you  
              did with the Acid /Base titrations.  This is called a Beer’s Law graph. Hit the regression  
              button to make a line of best fit that will also provide the slope and y – intercept data.
              Print this Graph.
 
         d) Dilute the dissolved brass solution (from nitric acid that was added to your brass samples yesterday).                                                     You will  dilute to 100.0 using a 100.0 ml volumetric flask. Googles and gloves here!
 
         e)  Once diluted to a the known volume, 100.0 ml, all you need to know to determine the percent of                            copper in the brass sample was obtain it concentration.  You will now fill a an empty cuvette with this                    solution.            
               
              Place it into the spectrophotometer and determine its Absorbance.
 
          f) Determine solutions concentration (molarity) using the Beer’s Law graph that was made yesterday (by  
           using linear algebra).
 
          g) Calculate the moles of copper, grams of copper and finally the percent by mass of copper.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Lab 16 – Non-formal– Write-up requirements:  This lab will be an individual Slide-up

 

1. Title Slide –  Title of Lab / name / date

 
2.  Background SLIDE– How spectrophotometry works/Notes
3. Objective SLIDE:  – To determine the percent by mass of copper in brass.
 
4. DATA SLIDES:
 
    a) Balance reaction between brass (copper only) and nitric acid (HNO3 ) on Data page
 
                                                                     NO3-1   —–>  NO2
                                                                         Cu   ——-> Cu+2
    b) Data table:
 
                a) mass of Brass Shot total
                b) balance nitric acid/calculation
                c) Serial dilution calculations
                 
    c) Beer’s Law Graph on its own SLIDE  I will post digital copies of each lab
 
    d) final calculation of % by mass of copper in shot – Show all calculations
 
    e) Calculate the absorptivity constant (a) using the absorbance (A) and concentrations (c).
 
                    A = a b c
 
                         Using the absorbance values from the spectrophotometer (A), the path length ( b = 1 cm ), and the 
                         concentrations of these solutions (c) solve for a with the correct units.  Make a chart. These  
                        values that you calculate should be similar as it is a constant.
 
 5Error analysis SLIDE:   The limitation of the lab was based on how well you made the solutions and if the absortivity constant STAYED CONTANT!  I will explain once you finish step e.
 
 
6. Sources SlideIf needed
 
I will explain e) on Wednesday!
                         

Silver plate non tarnish demo:
 
There are 2 reactions in this reaction that removes the tarnish (rust) from the oxidation effect of sulfur in our air that usually results from the breakdown of organic matter (dead animals and plants).
 
Silver exposed to Air that has hydrogen sulfide:  2 Ag(s) + H2S(g) —> Ag2S(s) + H2(g)
                                                                                                                      tarnish
 

#1                        3 Ag2S(s) + 2 Al(s)+ 3 H2O(l) —> 6 Ag(s) + Al2O3(s) + 3 H2S(aq)

 
 
#2                         3 NaHCO3(aq) + 3 H2S(aq) —-> 3 NaHS(aq) + 3 H2O(l) + 3 CO2(g)
 
 
What type of reactions are these?
 
 
Underwater fireworks:   KMnO4 is used to oxidize Clinto Cl2 gas
 
REDOX          #1                2KMnO4 (s)  +  16HCl  —> 2 KCl   +  2MnCl2 (aq)  +  8 H2O (l)  +  5Cl2 (g)
 
Acid/Base   #2                              CaC2   +   2H2O  —>  C2H2   +   Ca(OH)2
 
REDOX         #3                              C2H2   +    Cl2   —>   2HCl  +   2C   +   heat (light).                                                                                                                                 
  

 

             

_____________________________________________________                                                                      jump to:  top                                   12/19 – Tuesday’s Homework: –  

 
 1:  Please complete the class worksheet with the lecture video below and or key. 
 
2006 B spectrophotometry question.pdf
View Download
 
2006 B spectrophotometry question key p.pdf
View Download

 

2. TUMS LAB!!!! ASPIRIN LAB!!!!!!!

3. Shopping for your tallest AP Chemisty Teacher…

Spectrophometry and 2006 B worksheet review:
  • Start at 25:50 for the worksheet review. If you want more spectrophometry review please feel free to watch the entire video.

 

_______________________________________________________________________________             Jump toWednesday Homework  / top 12/20 – Wednesday  – A Day – 2, 3a Lab/4  

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                         
                                                  

    a) To continue with the percent by mass of copper in brass lab

    b) To Review concepts of spectrophotometry and crystal field theory.

    c)  To calculate a in A = abc and determine the limitations in spectrophotometry

Period 2/3a:

1.  Review the Spectrophotometry Form with key:
 
Spectrophotometry Intro Form Key.pdf
View Download
 
2.   Complete making the standard solutions from the serial dilution of 0.40 M CuSO4
3.  Calibrate the spectrophotometer and run the known sample to create a Beer’s Law Graph.
4.  Make the final solution  from the dissolved brass.
5. Calculate the percent by mass of copper in the brass sample.
6.   A = abc , calculate the absorptivity constant for each point, error analysis                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       
Period 4:
1.  Review the Spectrophotometry Form with key
2.  Dilute the dissolved brass shot from yesterday into 100.0 ml volumetric flasks.
3.  Calibrate Spectrophotometers, create Beer’s Law graph with standard solutions
4.  Make a regression line  (line of best fit) and determine the slope and y intercept.
5.  Run the unknown solution through the spectrophotometer and calculate the Molarity.
6. Determine the % by mass of the copper in the brass shot.
                                                                                                                                                                      

      __________________________________________________________________                                                                                                                   Lab 16 – The Percent by Mass of Copper in Brass.

               a percent by mass lab – need initial mass at the beginning!
 
        a) Set up your spectrophotometer so that it is calibrated (to water in a cuvette), set to measure  
             a peak wavelength (with the .40M solution), 
 
        b) Make our serial dilutions to calibrate the spectrophotometer
 
                    0.40 M (Standard),   0.04M,  0.02 M,  0.01M,  0.005M  of  Cu(NO3)2
 
        c) Place your four cuvettes of KNOWN concentrations into the spectrophotometer from  
              lowest concentration to highest and type in your concentrations (with Keep button like you  
              did with the Acid /Base titrations.  This is called a Beer’s Law graph. Hit the regression  
              button to make a line of best fit that will also provide the slope and y – intercept data.
              Print this Graph.
 
         d) Dilute the dissolved brass solution (from nitric acid that was added to your brass samples yesterday).                                                     You will  dilute to 100.0 using a 100.0 ml volumetric flask. Googles and gloves here!
 
         e)  Once diluted to a the known volume, 100.0 ml, all you need to know to determine the percent of                            copper in the brass sample was obtain it concentration.  You will now fill a an empty cuvette with this                    solution.            
               
              Place it into the spectrophotometer and determine its Absorbance.
 
          f) Determine solutions concentration (molarity) using the Beer’s Law graph that was made yesterday (by  
           using linear algebra).
 
          g) Calculate the moles of copper, grams of copper and finally the percent by mass of copper.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Lab 16 – Non-formal– Write-up requirements:  This lab will be an individual Slide-up

 

1. Title Slide –  Title of Lab / name / date

 
2.  Background SLIDE– How spectrophotometry works/Notes
3. Objective SLIDE:
 
4. DATA SLIDES:
 
    a) Balance reaction between brass (copper only) and nitric acid (HNO3 ) on Data page
 
                                                                     NO3-1   —–>  NO2
                                                                         Cu   ——-> Cu+2
    b) Data table:
 
                a) mass of Brass Shot total
                b) balance nitric acid/calculation
                c) Serial dilution calculations
                 
    c) Beer’s Law Graph on its own SLIDE  I will post digital copies of each lab
 
    d) final calculation of % by mass of copper in shot – Show all calculations
 
    e) Calculate the absorptivity constant (a) using the absorbance (A) and concentrations (c).
 
                    A = a b c
 
                         Using the absorbance values from the spectrophotometer (A), the path length ( b = 1 cm ), and the 
                         concentrations of these solutions (c) solve for a with the correct units.  Make a chart. These  
                        values that you calculate should be similar as it is a constant.
 
 5Error analysis SLIDE:   The limitation of the lab was based on how well you made the solutions and if the absortivity constant STAYED CONTANT!  I will explain once you finish step e.
 
 
6. Sources SlideIf needed
 
I will explain e) on Wednesday!                         

Dissolving of Brass with Nitric Acid: You need to balance this reaction in your lab!


 

_____________________________________________________________                                                            jump to:  top                             12/20 – Wednesday’s Homework: – 

1. Study redox titrations and spectrophotometry labs – Test tomorrow on both labs.
  
I will focus on Redox Volumetric Titration (Lab 15) and Spectrophotometry (Lab 16).  I will not ask specifically about crystal field theory or transitional metals. A great place to study besides your labs is the following worksheet (Stoichiometry 7 – 2010B worksheet) that we had last week.  The backside in particular is something that is fair game. I reposted this worksheet and its key from last Friday below. Also I reposted its video.
 
Stoichoimetry 7 – 2010B 1819.pdf
View Download
 
An older key but it will do the trick:
Stoichoimetry 7 – 2010B AP Key p.pdf
View Download
 
 
2. Complete Lab 16 on you printed graph! This is the first gift I am giving you!   The more you understand this lab the more better you will do tomorrow.  DUE Tomorrow!  
 
Here are the new requirements!!
 
1.  Please write the Title of the Lab on the top of the paper.
       
     a) Write the main objective under the Title 
 
2. Please make sure there is a title on your graph. 
3.  Please include all calculations that lead to the % by mass of copper in the brass including the linear algebra from the Beer’s Law graph.

4.  Balance reaction between brass (copper only) and nitric acid (HNO3 ) on THE BACK!

 
                                                                     NO3-1   —–>  NO2
                                                                         Cu   ——-> Cu+2
 
5.  Please write a comprehensive procedure of the steps of the Lab ON THE BACK!
 
IF you need help with the calculations or the basic concepts of the lab please use the video posted below: 

                                                                                     

Lab 16 Review of the calculations:                                                                                                                     

 

Stoichoimetry 7 – 2010B 1819.pdf review:   The backside in particular.

 

 End of Wednesday.

_________________________________________________________________________.                              Jump toThursday Homework / top 12/21 – Thursday – B Day – 2, 3b/4 Lab  

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                         
                                                  

    a) To take the Redox volumetric titration and Spectrophotometry test.

    b) To accept many holiday gifts from very appreciative students.

Period 2:  

1.  Redox volumetric Test

Period 3b/4:  

1.  Redox volumetric Test 

2.   I will grade it

3.  Review Test –

4. Volumetric Test 2!

 *A = abc , calculate the absorptivity constant for each point, error analysis  for week 7!                                                                                         

 

______________________________________________________                                                                         jump to:  top                              12/21 – Thursday Homework: –

1.  Review your Lab Test on volumetric titrations and Spectrophotometry.  I will provide a key or a video. 

I will have your graded tests back to you this afternoon!  

Volumetric Titrations and Spectrophotometry 1 test key.pdf
View Download
   

2.  Shop and wrap presents for a tall teacher.  I am a tall, boys husky.   

Don’t make me uncomfortable!!                                                        

 

_______________________________________________________________                                Jump toFriday Homework / top 12/22 – Friday – A Day – 2, 3a Lab/4      

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                                                                       

Winter Holidays GIF - Winter Holidays Holiday GIFs

a) To bring in heavy presents for your tallest teacher.

b) To synthesize a cross – linked polymer

c) To observe the properties of the polymer and happy tall teacher (due to your thoughtfulness)  

                                   

Period 2/3a:                                                                                                                                                                     

1. Complete second Volumetric Test.

2. Cross-Linked Polymer synthesis lab                                                                                                                                                 

Period 4:   

1.  Introduce Cross-Linked polymer Synthesis Lab  

2.  Cross-Linked Polymer synthesis lab

       

 

______________________________________________________________________                                                                                                              The Synthesis of a Cross Linked Polymer

               This lab might be a stretch for us right now but I hope it sticks to you.

        a) Dissolve 4 grams of polyvinyl chloride in 100 ml of distilled water. Make sure to keep the warm                   solution at or near 70 degrees Celsius.  If too warm it will denature and curl up.
 
        b) In a plastic cup please add 16 ml of sodium tetraborate with your choice of food coloring, glitter,               and/or fluorescent compound (if you want to have it glow in the dark).
 
        c)  Once the polyvinyl chloride is dissolved, POUR the hot polyvinyl solution into the plastic cup                     with the sodium tetraborate, food coloring etc and stir with wooden popsicle stick like a banshie!  
 
         d) Once the polymer cools enough we will test its physical properties and then dispose of it in a  ziplock baggie.
         
       

___________________________________________________                                                                              jump to:  top                              12/23 – Holiday Homework: –

               

1. Please respond to the Holiday Form daily over break by writing the time left in your break with the countdown below everyday.


                                                                                                                                                            

 
1: Holiday Form:

 

 

 

                                                                       Happy New Year!