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   Q3 : Week 1 – 1/29 – 2/2

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– Regarding Homework assignments – IF you cannot complete the assigned homework before school the next day you must email me.

Please Make sure Your read all instructions for all assignments.   

Make Sure Powerschool grades are accurate!!     

_____________________________________________________                                                     Jump to: Monday Homework / top     1/29 – Monday – B Day – 2, 3b/4 Lab

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                         
                                                  

   a) To discuss the Ultraviolet Catastrophe as the beginning of Quantum Theory 

   b) To identify the significance of Einstein’s Photoelectric Effect.

 

Period 2,3b/4:

– Quick Review of the mass spectrometer/weighted mass problem and models up to Ultraviolet catastrophe/Black Body Radiators

1Light as wave – double slit – Thomas Young

               a) Laser pointer demo with double slit
 
                b) Destructive interference, Constructive interference     
 
                c) IR remote –     

 

2.  Ultraviolet Catastrophe explained- 

     – particle theory of the atom on a crash course with wave behavior of light
 
3.  Classwork problems with wave equations      
 
Atomic structure 2 – Bohrs.pdf
View Download
 
atomic structure 2 – Bohr Key p.pdf
View Download

4.  photoelectric Effect – review – animation
     Photoelectric Effect Lecture with simulation:

________________________________________________________

NOTES On the Ultraviolet Catastrophe:
There is just not enough energy present at fixed temperatures to elicit high frequency radiation because the oscillators (electrons and atomic nuclei) are taking in the energy in constant chunks (photons) and re-emitting these photons. The energy is not a constant flow and does not build up. 
 
The heater in the Black Body radiator makes the atoms vibrates at all different frequencies and thus a wide range of photons are released because temperature is proportional to molecular motion range.
 
 The lower energy vibrations use up the energy first, leaving very few chunks or quanta to excite  the higher energy vibrations.  The higher energy vibrations (at the smallest wavelengths) are needed to elicit higher frequency radiation and there is just not enough of these photons available.
 
With classical physics, energy is a continuous stream of energy, and oscillators in the black bodies can vibrate with ANY frequency thus have an infinite amount possible frequencies or modes. Classical physics suggests that kinetic energy that is absorbed is absorbed evenly throughout every possible mode (or frequency ). This is called the Equal Partition Theorem and this theory work very well in many cases to predict kinetic energy in many systems.  It did NOT do very well in the explanation of wavelengths emitted from black bodies. Its formulas (of equal partition called the Rayleigh Law) led us with predictions that led to the “catastrophe” because energy that was absorbed by the black body was absorbed equally by all modes of vibration. Because there are more vibrational modes that are smaller (limit to zero) these high frequency modes would gain more of the energy than the less frequent lower frequency modes. 
 

Max Plank’s new formula was able to predict the experimental results IF the frequency which is proportional to the Energy ONLY existed in discreet bundles and was not continuous! That is matter in the black bodies could not vibrate at any frequency and absorb ANY amount of energy. They could only absorb certain energy amounts AND only start vibrating or oscillating at certain frequencies!
 
Max Plank started the quantum revolution!
 
                                                                                 E (energy) =     h     *         f
                                                                             Energy                 =  Planks   *    frequency
                                                                                                                                      Constant
 
    Planks Constant represents a proportionality constant (price per seat!) or the  smallest divisible                                         value that frequency (can have). 
 
                                       It represents the “energy chunk” = 6.63 x 10-34 J s (Joule seconds)
 
                 Energy is absorbed in chunks of this small value x the frequency of the oscillator. 
 
                                                              Energy is not continuous!!!! 
                                                     
                                                    The oscillator of course are the atoms!!!

 

Figure 1:
From our reference tables:

Light into the Bohr Model:

Phet demo – Blackbody radiation

Phet demo – Phot0electric Effect – 

 

_____________________________________________________                                                                                               jump to:  top                      1/29 – Monday’s Homework: – 

1. Complete the photoelectric effect worksheet (side 1 and 2) and review with the key or use the videos posted below to review.  You should of completed the first question from side one last night. If you need a review of the concept of the photoelectric effect, there is a lecture posted below (last one for today) for your viewing pleasure.   

 
atomic structure – 1 – photoelectric effect.pdf
View Download
 
atomic structure – 1 – photoelectric effect KEY.pdf
View Download
 
Lecture that reviews first side of atomic structure – 1 – photoelectric effect worksheet.

                                              

 
Lecture that reviews the second side (questions 5 and 6): 

 

 
2. Complete questions 1,2,3 on the following worksheet and review with the key or the video below:
 
Atomic structure 2 – bohrs.pdf
View Download
 
Atomic structure 2 – Bohr Key p.pdf
View Download
 
3. Complete the Mass Spectrometer Form from Last week.
I have emailed everyone their grade for the 1st response. You have 2 more responses left.
 
Link to Last Friday’s Form:https://forms.gle/WhUYHY62md9daFx78 
 
 
Lecture on atomic structure 2  – Bohr’s worksheet – (front side): 

 

                                                                                                                                   . \

Photoelectric effect Explained with the Phet demo 

______________________________________________________________________                        Jump to: Tuesday Homework / top    1/30 – Tuesday –  A Day 2, 3a Lab/4 

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                         
                                                  

a) To Review how Max Planck solved the Ultraviolet Catastrophe.

b) To Review how Albert Einstein interpreted the Max Planks equation and used it to            explain the Photoelectric Effect.

c) To solve wave problems using the light equations equations by Maxwell, Plank and           Einstein. 

Chemistry 2e / Open stax

 

Period 2/3a: remote demo

1.  Connect the Max Planks Ultraviolet Catastrophe to Einsteins Photoelectric effect.

2.  Use the PHet simulation to review the Photoelectric effect = E becomes the E (p)!

       a) redox implications Na vs, Cu! – Review – More in depth review of the photoelectric effect

3.  Complete Photoelectric effect worksheet 2 – (combining the 2 wave equations)

Photoelectric effect worksheet 2 – .pdf
View Download

Review the light equation and Photoelectric homework

4.  Light theories (Maybe)

                                                                                                                                   

Period 4: remote demo

 

1.  Connect the Max Planks Ultraviolet Catastrophe to Einsteins Photoelectric effect.

2.  Use the PHet simulation to teach the Photoelectric effect = E becomes the E (p)!

       a) redox implications Na vs, Cu!

3.  Complete Photoelectric effect worksheet 2 – (combining the 2 wave equations)

Photoelectric effect worksheet 2 – .pdf
View Download

Review the light equation and Photoelectric homework

TODAY’s NOTES:

1.  Plank and Einstein’s contribution to the development of the duality of particle and wave behavior of light. 
 
Plank Energy was quantized by a multiple of (h) = Plank’s constant
 
Einstein = Light was quantized into packets called photons and each electron interacted with a single photon
 
    a) Review of the photoelectric effect with animation.
 
These ideas was on a crash course towards the particle model of the atom
 
Up to this point we have discussed how Plank gave us the concept of quanta – discreet energy requirements for the oscillators in a Black Body Radiator. And how Einstein gave us the concept of photons (light existing as a particles of energy) in his explanation of the photoelectric effect.  Einstein postulated that light is quantized and that matter (atoms) is quantized by the quanta of light it can accept.  His contribution was vital to the development of quantum mechanics in that electrons and photons are paired with one another in energy changes of matter.  Also the contribution that light can have particle (mass) properties and wave properties (particle/wave duality) was monumental for the development of quantum mechanics.
 
So Plank uncovered the secret to the Ultraviolet Catastrophe and Einstein the photoelectric effect.  Both were phenomenon that classical  physics could not explain.  
 
Bright Line Spectra was another phenomenon that know one knew how to explain and yet since the 1850’s it was used to identify elements based on the type of light emitted by elements when they are subject to high energy.

 

                                                                                 

Light into the Bohr Model:

_____________________________________________________                                                                                                      jump to:  top                 1/30 – Tuesday’s Homework: – 

1.  Timeline Activity-  Clash of the Titans:  

      Clash of the TITANS – movie note taking – (instructions below)

2.  Complete the Photoelectric worksheet 2 and review with the key.
 
Photoelectric effect worksheet 2 – .pdf
View Download
 
Photoelectric effect worksheet 2 Key .pdf
View Download
  
You need this for the last question for Photoelectric effect worksheet 2:
 
3.  Photoelectric Effect FormYou need to complete tonights Timeline assignment first!! If you need to review the concepts of the Photoelectric effect please view the lectures posted above the form below.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          

 

Clash of the Titans:  Clash of the TITANS – movie note taking – (instructions below)

 
Timeline activity – from 00:00 – 27:35 only this weekend!
 
   Please make a timeline of important events that lead to the 
   development of quantum mechanics (our current model of the atom).
   
Time line activity – Trace the important moments in the development of the atom.
Scientists – dates – places – accomplishments – anecdotes – 
This will be collected once it is completed and YOU ARE ONLY STARTING it!
 
I am asking that you start your timeline from 00:00 to 27:35 of the Clash of the TITANS movie below. 
 
Clash of the Titans
http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/atom-tim/   or https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y-AiqCp7Vlc
 
 
I will be collecting this once we complete the entire timeline next week!
 
I have an example posted below which you should model the rest of your Timeline from.
 
 
My Example:

  

                                                                                                                                   . \

Photoelectric effect Explained – Phet demo 

Photoelectric effect Explained with PHet Simulation: 

 
3 : Photoelectric Effect 23-24 Form:
 

End of Tuesday!

___________________________________________________________________________                 Jump to: Wednesday Homework / top 1/31 – Wednesday – B Day – 2, 3b/4 Lab  

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                         
                                                  

a) To discuss the Bohr model of the atom and its combination of classical physics and              the new quantum theory.

 b) To observe emission spectroscopy and make calculations with the Balmer                               Equation

c) To identify elements by their Emission Spectrum

   

Period 2: Bohr, Balmer equation, inverse square law – demo, quantum leaps

1.  Complete the light theories, positive and negative, colorblindness, newton wheels, sunset demo 

2.  Introduce the Bohr Model, plane, Balmer equation, inverse square – law, quantized energy levels TUBE, phosphorescence demo

3.  Bright line Spectrum Demo, absorption spectrum, transition of electrons flash

                                                                                       

Period 3a,4: Bohr, Balmer equation, inverse square law – demo, quantum leaps

1.  Review light theories, positive and negative, trick the eyes too see white

2.  Introduce the Bohr Model, plane, Balmer equation, inverse square – law – quantized energy levels TUBE, phosphorescence demo.

3.  Bright line Spectrum Demo /absorption theories.

 
Today’s NOTES:
 
Plank Energy was quantized by a multiple of (h) = Plank’s constant
 
Einstein = Light was quantized into packets called photons and each electron interacted with a single photon
 
These light ideas was on a crash course towards the particle model of the atom and Neil’s Bohr was the first to develop a model of the atom to that was quantized in terms of the electrons.  He was able to expand Rutherfords particle model with electrons that were organized in shells that had definite energy levels based on the proximity to the nucleus.  These electrons emitted or absorbed photons of electromagnetic energy based on electrons transitions to and from these energy levels. 
 
Neils Bohr was able to develop a quantized model of the atom by using another phenomenom which were the Bright Light Emissions Spectra, known for over 50 years.
 
Bright Line Spectra was another phenomenon that know one knew how to explain and yet since the 1850’s it was used to identify elements based on the type of light emitted by elements when they are subject to high energy.

These Bright Lines, Photons of a specific Energy ( E = hv) are emitted from each element differently and thus can be used to identify elements.  Helium, He was discovered from the light given off from the sun.  Light from the sun was diffracted and all of the bright lines were identified from all known elements at the time and the Bright Lines that remained was thought to have come from a new element that was yet to be discovered on earth.  They called it Helium, the Greek God of the Sun (Helios). Thirty years later Helium was discovered on Earth and it had the same spectral lines as the mysterious new element discovered on the Sun!
 
I will perform this demo today and tomorrow and we will look at the spectral lines of a few elements and some molecules.
 
Neill’s Bohr was the first to explain this phenomenon by creating a model of the atom that suggested that the energy levels in an atom are quantized and that the spectral lines are due to electrons making quantum leaps from higher to lower energy levels. 

  Bohr took Plank’s and Einstein’s ideas as was the first to make a quantum model of the atom that stated that electrons can only have discreet energy levels (quanta) and that when they move (quantum leap) the energy changes result in photons of light being released (when moving back to the ground state) or absorbed (when moving to higher energy states).  Before Bohr the model of the atom was Rutherfords, where electrons orbited the nucleus but could have any energy
Yesterday I started today talking the bright line spectrum that Bohr interpreted from the Balmer equations. He was able to show the the “bright lines” of Hydrogen were the photons of light emitted by electrons returning to their most stable state (closer to the nucleus or mom). 
 
These Bright lines were made by pure elements being “excited with energy” (electrons moving away from atom in higher energy shells) in gas discharge tubes and when these excited electrons move back to their stable low energy positions photons of light are emitted that are specific to electron moving or transitioning from a higher energy shell to a lower energy shell.
 
Bright line spectrums were know since 1850’s and were specific for each different element.  This means that each different element had its own unique spectrum could be used to identify elements. It was a spectral fingerprint.  The Bright line spectrum was used to discover Helium from light of the sun 30 years before it was discovered on Earth.

 

Niels Bohr accomplishment was to describe the known Bright Line Spectrum of Hydrogen in terms of emissions of photons of light of specific energy related to electrons returning from an excited state (from a constant supply of energy).  The red line in the Bright line spectrum below is due to electrons “leaping” from the 3rd energy shell back to to the second!  Our homework is actually the calculation of the energy of the that this quantum leap or transition would release.  It is this type of calculation that earned Niels Bohr a Noble Prize!

                           

 

 

 

                                                                                                    

 

Light into the Bohr Model:

______________________________________________.                                                                                           jump to:  top                 1/31 – Wednesday Homework: –

1.   Please read my notes posted above.
 
2.  Please watch the lecture below (AP Lecture Balmer Equations) and follow me through the backside of the  Atomic structure 2 – bohrs.pdf worksheet.
 
THE last question should read:
 Calculate the Energy needed for an electron to transition from the 4th energy shell to the 2nd energy shell?  What color of light is this. 
Atomic structure 2 – bohrs.pdf

View Download

 
Atomic structure 2 – Bohr Key p.pdf

View Download

 
3.  Complete questions 1 and 2 in atomic structure 3 worksheet and review with the key. 
 
atomic structure 3 – de Broglie Key.pdf
 
Atomic structure 3 – de Broglie.pdf

View Download  

  

4. Please complete the Bright Line spectrum worksheet

 
Bright line spectra – .pdf

View Download

 
Bright Line spectrum Key p.pdf

View Download

1: AP Lecture Balmer equations:

                                                     End of Wednesday!!

 

______________________________________________________________________                           Jump to: Thursday Homework / top   2/1 – Thursday – A Day 2, 3a Lab/4

Main focus                                                                                                                                                      

                                                  

a) To Compare and contrast the Emission Spectrum of Helium and Hydrogen

b) To differentiate the difference in energy emitted in blackbody radiaters and emission spectrum.

c) To review the Limitations of the Bohr Model 

d) To introduce the concepts and equation of DeBroglie

 

Period 2,3a,4:

1. Review of Bohr Model ——–> limitations to Bohr’ s model 

inverse square -, phosphorescence demo, infrared remotes

 –transition of electrons flash
 
2. Louis De broglia –   wave behavior of matter!!!!

 

3: applications of absorption and emission – Transitions of electrons
        a) Atomic clocks
        b) lasers
        c)  Fireworks
 

 

Limitations to the Bohr model:

How would He+1 emission spectrum look different than its atomic state?

 
OUR New Equation today! 
 
 
This was a formula that from a PhD student that needed Einsteins approval.  It used Einstein’s formulas to form a new formula that proposed all things that have matter also have wavelengths! Or better yet, all things that have matter also have wave behavior!  This was the first proposed idea of wave /matter duality that was needed for Quantum Mechanics.  Einstein loved the work because it allowed the conservatives to view the atom exclusive of the mathematics of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics (Niel’s Bohr’s group).               

 

                                                                                                         

Light into the Bohr Model:

Bright Line Spectra of Hydrogen:

Bright Line Spectra of Helium:

Bohr into De broglie Lecture: (tonight’s homework lecture)

_________________________________________________                                                                                  jump to:  top                           2/1 – Thursday Homework: –

                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

1. Please view the Bohr and De Broglie video posted above.

2. Please complete the de Broglie worksheet and review with the key. 

              

atomic structure 3 – de Broglie Key.pdf

 
Atomic structure 3 – de Broglie.pdf

View Download   

 

3. Clash of Titans Timeline continues.  Please continue with your timeline from 27:00 – 34:55.

 
 Clash of the Titans
http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/atom-tim/   or https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y-AiqCp7Vlc
 
 

 

4. Complete the form below!
 

 

                                                                                                                                                         

 
4 : Bohr Form – 23-24 :
 

End of Thursday!

_________________________________________________________________                                            Jump to: Friday Homework / top    2/2 – Friday – B Day – 2, 3b/4 Lab  

Main focus –                                                                                                                                                         
                                                  

a) To discuss the quantum mechanical models developed 

b) To use the solutions of the Shrodinger equation to describe the atom and electron               arrangements.

 

Period 2,3a,4:

 

1.  Bohr limitations – His model was doomed…..(wave behavior of electrons!)
2.  Louis DeBroglia – Electrons as waves! – Matter has waves properties!!!
3. De Broglie wavelength ,Compton effect, Davidson  – Germer, William Thompson
 
4. Shrodinger’s equation —> solutions —–> quantum numbers
 
The math from the Bohr team – Copenhagen interpretation gave some very hard phenomenon to think about that must be accepted:
 
            1) Heisenberg Uncertainty principle
            2) Superposition
            3) Quantum Entanglement
            4) Multiple Worlds Theory – explains the collapse of the superposition (wave function)
 
In the words of Richard Feynman, (Nobel Prize winner, 1965 – quantum electrodynamics)
 
“If you do not like it. Too bad! Go somewhere else! That is how the universe works!” 
 
Quantum Numbers – worksheet 1.pdf
View Download
 
Atomic Structure 4b -Electron configuration.pdf

 

 

 

Light into the Bohr Model:

____________________________________________                                                                                                    jump to:  top                2/2 – Friday Homework: –

Link for the KEY for the Gas Law Test: https://drive.google.com/file/d/1XjoAtGIDsAzaEBMsdEIekakOrpl11rld/view?usp=share_link

1. Complete the Timeline of the Clash of the Titans – due Monday – hardcopy or digital.  

2. Complete the Form below. You will need the watch the to the end of the Clash of the Titans to complete. You will have one submission to this form.

3. Watch the quantum number lesson video and complete the form. This reviews the solutions to the Schrodinger equation that will allow us to determine the energy and relative positions of the electrons around the nucleus based on their quantum energy states.  All this means is that we will get electron configurations from the equation FROM the solutions to the Schrodinger equation.

 
Make sure you have completed your timeline before you begin this lecture.  This lecture about the values that we get from the Schrodinger equation that was “discovered over a weekend” that helped team Einstein (who was pitted against Team Bohr) have more of a visual model of the atom using standing waves of electrons in orbitals).  Remember that Team Bohr described the atom and its behavior entirely with mathematics and equations.  It is the solutions (quantum numbers) to the Schrodinger equation that have lead us to our current electron configuration of atoms that explains all of the chemical nature of atoms.
 
Remember electron configurations this summer?   Na:  1s22s22p63s1
 
This is the arrangement of electrons in an atom based on electrons existing in standing waves in a region called an orbitals. These orbitals are quantized and their arrangement is also based on its proximity to the nucleus, much like Bohr’s first quantum model of the atoms with electrons moving in orbits.  Example:  3s electrons are farther away from the nucleus and have greater energy (unstable) than 1s electrons who are closer to the nucleus (more stable).  The difference to the Bohr model is that electrons are existing as standing waves in a particular geometry.  The basics of the Bohr model is still upheld (that is why he won a Nobel Prize for his first model). 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                You learned electron configurations this summer and did so without the rest of the atomic structure history and concepts.  We will re-vist electron configurations but will develop the concepts through quantum numbers! 

 
2 : Bohr to DeBoglie Form:
 

3 :Quantum number lecture:

 
3 : Quantum Number Form: