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## Q3 : Week 2 – 2/6 – 2/10

If you have not already please join the REMIND for this class.

Make Sure Powerschool grades are accurate!!

_____________________________________________________                                                                                                                                                              2/6 – Monday B Day 2, 3b Lab/4

Main focus –

a) To use the solutions to the Schrodinger Equation to write electron configurations.

b) To define the quantum numbers to standing waves of orbitals (wave potentials).

c) To build an orbital diagrams.

Period 2,3b,4:

1. Shrodinger’s equation —> quantum numbers

The math from the Bohr team – Copenhagen interpretation gave some very hard phenomenon to think about that must be accepted:

1) Heisenberg Uncertainty principle
2) Superposition
3) Quantum Entanglement
4) Multiple Worlds Theory – explains the collapse of the superposition (wave function)

In the words of Richard Feynman, (Nobel Prize winner, 1965 – quantum electrodynamics)

“If you do not like it. Too bad! Go somewhere else! That is how the universe works!”

2.  Review the quantum number form.

Quantum Number form 1920 Key p.pdf

3.  Complete the Quantum numbers worksheet with the class to cements the concepts of quantum numbers that are solutions to the Shroedinger’s Equations.

Quantum Numbers – worksheet 1.pdf

Quantum Numbers – worksheet 2.pdf

Atomic Structure 4b -Electron configuration.pdf

4.  Wrote the configuration of the Uranium to demonstrate how the periodic table is a guide to the electron configurations (especially the overlapping of energy levels).

Need to show students the shapes of orbitals and where the g begins!!

TODAY’s NOTES:

Electrons are arranged from lowest energy to higher energy = Aufbau Principle
So they fill from lower n to higher n  and from lower energy orbitals (l) to higher energy orbitals. Electrons fill sublevels in order ( s,p,d,f).

Electron are arranged in        n = principle energy levels
l  = sublevels
ms =  individual orbitals (actual 3 -d shape where pairs of electrons can exist)

Every Electron has a unique set of 4 quantum numbers (including spin msPauli Exclusion Principle
These quantum numbers describe how the electrons are arranged in the atom based on energy.

The basic organization is principle energy level (n = 1, 2, 3, etc.) – “shell”

sublevel  (s,  p,  d,  f, ) – type of orbital and all of its orientations
l = 0,  1,   2,  3

orbital (individual orbital of a single orientation of a sublevel)
m= -l , 0, +l

This arrangement uses notation that describes the organization of the electrons in principle energy levels and sublevels. The exponent is the number of electrons in the TOTAL sublevel that includes all the orbitals of different orientation of the same sublevel.

s = 1 orbital   (l = 0, ml = 0)
p = 2 orbitals (l = 1, ml = -1,  0, +1)
d = 5 orbitals (l = 2, ml = -2, -1, 0, +1, +2)
f  = 7 orbitals (l  = 3, ml = -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3)
g =  ?

Electron configuration of Al:           Nucleus:  1s22s22p63s23p1

Orbital notation for Al:
Each box represents a single orbital.

Which electrons are the most stable? Unstable?

*ConnectionsOur quantum numbers refer to specific energy levels allowable by each quantized element.  The arrangement of electrons in quantized energy orbitals that were solutions to the Erwin Schrodinger equation (quantum numbers) are actually hidden in the periodic table that was already arranged according these energy levels (unbeknownst to Mendeleev and Moseley!!) The periodic table that we use is a condensed version that does not insert the  f block ( l = 3) because it would not fit on most pages!!!!

Need to show students the shapes of orbitals and where the g begins!!

Light into the Bohr Model:

2/6 – Monday’s Homework: –

1.  Please complete the Quantum Numbers – worksheet 1.pdf if you did not do so in class and review with the key below:

Quantum Numbers – worksheet 1.pdf

Quantum Numbers – worksheet 1 Key.pdf

2.  Please view the lecture of me reviewing the first 4 elements in the Quantum Numbers – worksheet 2.pdf and then complete the worksheet. Review with the key below.

Quantum Numbers – worksheet 2.pdf

Quantum Numbers – worksheet 2 Key.pdf

3. Period 4 Class only:  Please write all the configuration from the worksheet below and review with key or with the 2 lectures posted at the bottom of this page if you need help.  Period 2 class do not complete this yet!!!

Atomic Structure 4b -Electron configuration.pdf

Atomic Structure 4b -Electron configuration key.pdf

Review of quantum number worksheet 2 (the 4 atoms) :

 electron configuration 1 electron configuration 2

2/7 – Tuesday – A Day – 2/3a Lab, 4

Main focus –

a) To write electron configurations for atoms and ions using the quantum numbers

b) To identify filled, occupied, and partially filled principle energy levels, sublevels,                and orbitals.

Period 2,3a: –  Shape of orbitals! (presentations and flash)

1.  Review the quantum numbers worksheet 1.

Quantum Numbers – worksheet 1 Key.pdf

2. Review the quantum numbers worksheet 2.

a) Overlapping of principle energy levels (orbitals) – Scandalous!!!

Quantum Numbers – worksheet 2 Key.pdf

3.  Writing Electron Configuration of Uranium – writing configurations lesson – shorthand!

– Wrote the electron configuration of Uranium and Ag / Ag/Shorthand/ and U+6

Atomic Structure 4b -Electron configuration.pdf

Atomic Structure 4b -Electron configuration key.pdf

Period 4: – Shape of orbitals! (presentations and flash)

1.  Quantum numbers Review with presentation

2. Review the Quantum Numbers worksheet 2.

3. Review of electron configurations

TODAY’s NOTES:

Electrons are arranged from lowest energy to higher energy = Aufbau Principle
So they fill from lower n to higher n  and from lower energy orbitals (l) to higher energy orbitals. Electrons fill sublevels in order ( s,p,d,f).

Electron are arranged in        n = principle energy levels
l  = sublevels
ms =  individual orbitals (actual 3 -d shape where pairs of electrons can exist)

Every Electron has a unique set of 4 quantum numbers (including spin msPauli Exclusion Principle
These quantum numbers describe how the electrons are arranged in the atom based on energy.

The basic organization is principle energy level (n = 1, 2, 3, etc.) – “shell”

sublevel  (s,  p,  d,  f, ) – type of orbital and all of its orientations
l = 0,  1,   2,  3

orbital (individual orbital of a single orientation of a sublevel)
m= -l , 0, +l

This arrangement uses notation that describes the organization of the electrons in principle energy levels and sublevels. The exponent is the number of electrons in the TOTAL sublevel that includes all the orbitals of different orientation of the same sublevel.

s = 1 orbital   (l = 0, ml = 0)
p = 2 orbitals (l = 1, ml = -1,  0, +1)
d = 5 orbitals (l = 2, ml = -2, -1, 0, +1, +2)
f  = 7 orbitals (l  = 3, ml = -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3)
g =  ?

Electron configuration of Nitrogen:           Nucleus:  1s22s22p3

Orbital notation for N:
Each box represents a single orbital.

The orbital diagram of Nitrogen above reveals a new situation where electrons will occupy empty orbitals OF THE SAME SUBLEVEL before they pair up in a single orbital.
This did not occur in the s sublevel because there is only 1 orbital in the s sublevel.

IF l = 0 (s sublevel) → ml = 0 (only 1 solution thus only 1 orbital for the s sublevlel)  thus a second electron had no other choice but to pair up in an s orbital due to the Aufbau Principle. That is this second electron was more stable (lower in energy ) in a paired s orbital than a p orbital of higher energy.

If the electron in an sublevel with multiple degenerate orbitals (different orientations in space) will occupy an empty orbital before pairing up = Hund’s Rule.

*ConnectionsOur quantum numbers refer to specific energy levels allowable by each quantized element.  The arrangement of electrons in quantized energy orbitals that were solutions to the Erwin Schrodinger equation (quantum numbers) are actually hidden in the periodic table that was already arranged according these energy levels (unbeknownst to Mendeleev and Moseley!!) The periodic table that we use is a condensed version that does not insert the  f block ( l = 3) because it would not fit on most pages!!!!

Need to show students the shapes of orbitals and where the g begins!!

Aufbau Principle Flask Energy inversions :

Quantum Numbers to Electron Configurations:

2/7 – Tuesday’s Homework: –

1.  Please complete Atomic Structure 4b -Electron configuration.pdf worksheet and review the key if you have not done already.

Atomic Structure 4b -Electron configuration.pdf

Atomic Structure 4b -Electron configuration key.pdf

2.  Please complete AP periodicity and Electron Configuration Form 1 based on the presentations below and the blue book. ( I have scanned the pages that you need).

IF YOU WANT TO Download the Blue Book snipit for the homework:

Blue book Chapter 7 p.pdf

Powerpoint Presentation 1:

Blue BooK:

. \

2 : Tonight’s Form:  AP Periodicity and Electron Configurations Form 1 22-23

End of Wednesday!

2/8 – Wednesday B Day – 2, 3b/4 Lab

Main focus –

a) To Review Groundstate vs. Excited electron configurations.

b) To define Z, Zeff, and Ionization energy.

c) To review electron screening and electron – electron repulsions (Zeff)

Period 2,3b/4:

1. A review of the Atomic Structure 4b -Electron configuration.pdf worksheet (electron configurations).

Atomic Structure 4b -Electron configuration key.pdf

a) Go through the complete electron configuration of entire periodic table with                                                                                            slide 154 – g orbitals –> groundstate vs. Excited state

2. A Review of the Quantum number worksheet 2. (reviews overlapping of principle energy levels)

Quantum Numbers – worksheet 2 Key.pdf

3. Review of last nights Form.

4.   Define, Z, Zeff, electron screening and electron – electron repulsions.

TODAY’s NOTES:

Important Vocabulary that you will need in this unit:

Z  = #of protons    synonyms   Z = nuclear charge and   Z = Atomic Number (Thanks Moseley!)

Zeff = effective nuclear charge – (the nuclear charge that the electron feels as a result of electron – electron interactions ( screening or electron – electron repulsions).

n = principle energy level, the larger the n the larger the number of core electrons
and larger the orbitals. n defines the proximity of electrons to the
nucleus.  The farther that an electron is from the nucleus the lower the
coulombic  attractions that the electron feels and thus is less stable
than electrons closer to the nucleus.

Armed with ZZeff, and you can explain almost everything in periodicity and electron
configurations.

****Since we are continuously evaluating the energy levels of electrons that are bound in an atom or ion in this unit, Ionization energy values are very helpful in determining stability of an electron.

Ionization Energy the energy needed to remove an electron (Einstein’s Binding Energy).
Electrons with higher IE are more stable (takes more energy to remove!)
Electrons with lower IE are less stable (takes less energy to remove!)

Example for Na (sodium):                  IE1          +            Na     —->      Na+        +         e-
first Ionization Energy

Ionization Energy is often described as the First Ionization Energy (1st IE) or the Second Ionization Energy (2nd IE) and so on…

– The Second Ionization Energy is the Energy needed to remove a second electron (after a single electron was removed)

IE2          +           Na+     —->      Na+2        +         e-
Second Ionization Energy

So the 2nd IE is the energy needed to remove the second electron.  Would it require the same amount as the 1st IE?  No it would require much more because Na+ the second electron would be removed from a filled principle energy level!! These are core electrons that are more stable. Do not lose site that IE is a measure of electron stability.

Stable Electrons =          High coulombic attraction to nucleus =         lower energy orbitals =      High IE
Lower energy                               Lower n, Higher Zeff                               closer to the nucleus

Successive IE values have verified the existence of Valence electrons!!! Look at the diagram below.
Notice when a successive IE “JUMPS THROUGH THE ROOF”.

Na (atom) :   1s22s22p63s                                            Na+1 (atom):  1s22s22p6

Removing valence electron (less stable)                    Removing a core electron (more stable)
3s electron has higher n                                             2p electron has lower n
3s electron has lower Zeff                                    2p electron has higher Zeff
Z = 11                                                                                       Z = 11

IE =   500 kJ/mol          —— 9 x increase——->              IE2 = 4560 kJ/mole
removing valence e     “jumps through the roof”           removing core e

Thus Na has 1 valence electron

– Wrote the electron configuration of Uranium and Ag / Ag/Shorthand/ and U+6

“ALL of  This is about Energy “

ALL of this is about Energy Lecture!

Need to show students the shapes of orbitals and where the g begins!!

Light into the Bohr Model and beyond!

2/8 – Wednesday Homework: –

1.  Please complete the Form below based on the resources posted above the form.  Please answer the questions completely as if you were answering a free response question. Do not be vague but get to your point quickly!    A longer response is not always the correct reponse.

Powerpoint Presentation 1:

Blue BooK:

1 : Tonight’s Form:  AP Periodicity and Electron Configurations Form 2 22-23 –

Please use complete sentences and DO NOT BE VAGUE!!  Be careful to answer each question in each numbered question. There is often more than one question per numbered question.  Writing more does not guarantee the answer will be correct.  The real skill is to write the least amount of words that will answer the question completely.  Get in and get out!

End of Tuesday!

2/9 – Thursday – A Day – 2/3a Lab, 4

Main focus –

a) To

b) To

Period 2/3:  –

1.

Last Slides for Quantum Mechanics!

2/9 – Thursday Homework: –

1. Clash

2/10 – Friday B Day – 2, 3b/4 Lab

Main focus –

a) To use

b) To d

c) To .

Period 2/3/4:  –

1.  Review

2.  Complete the

3.  Wrote

Light into the Bohr Model: