*Remember that I put the plan for the day below for each day and then I adjust BASED on what we accomplish. These pages are fluid and thus you must refresh each day.
9/4 – Wednesday – period 7 – Academic Study Hall
– period 8 –
1: Reasons for Summer Assignment:
2: Lab safety contract/explain HW
Using printer out of class:
My classroom printer is web – connected and has its own email address. Email files to your printer to print from anywhere at anytime.
My classrooms email address:
Write an email to the following address and then attach file to print.
3. Logged into Mastery Learning to get access to the E-text.
4: Summer Assignment Wrap – Up Lecture:
The purpose here was to interconnect the important concepts of Mendelian Genetics, Chromosomal line of inheritance, and Evolution.
I discussed 2n = 2 Diploid individual to cell cycle where DNA is duplicated in cell growth cycle.
Notice in the diagram below there are 4 chromosomes at the End of G2 (growth phase 2) due to the duplication of the DNA in the S (synthesis phase).
Notice the Cell drawn has 2n = 2 BUT 4 chromosomes are drawn! This is due to the duplication of DNA in the S phase of the growth cycle in preparation for Mitosis.
G1 : Growth Phase
S : Synthesis Phase
G2 : Growth Phase
Interphase = G1, S, G2
So a cell is in Interphase when it is not duplicating itself. Mitosis starts with Prophase when the chromosomes condense (become visible under a stain with a microscope).
So a chromosome is just a coiled up version of DNA that is needed for it to segregate (move and separate from its exact copy (Sister chromatid).
DNA is constantly used to code for and make the proteins that spark the chemical reactions that give us our traits.
DNA cannot be coiled up in chromosome to be used
*Notice that in G2 the cell double checks the NEW DNA copy that is made for mismatched code (MUTATIONS!)
Normally the cell repairs the mismatched code and but in very rare occasions the cell does not correct the incorrect code and a mutation occurs.
A mutation COULD result in a different Amino Acid (makes proteins) and a different shaped protein that does not catalyze the chemical reaction to make the targeted allele (red pigment in the red flower). This “broken gene” becomes the recessive allele and no red pigment would make the flower white.
Keep in mind mutations are how we gain new alleles. The red pigment for the red color resulted as a mutation from another allele. If the new allele from a mutation is beneficial or neutral (no negative or positive effect), the organism keeps that allele because it is able to survive and reproduce maintaining the new trait in the next generation. This is how evolution works! If the mutation is lethal to the organism the trait does not get passed to the next generation because organism will die before it can reproduce.
Given the illustration to the right:
1. Are we looking at Interphase or Mitosis?
2. What is the Diploid number? 2n = ?
3. Which Mendelian Law describes the random separating of the sister chromatids into gametes?
1. Mitosis, we see the chromosomes silly!!!! In interphase there are no chromosomes (wound up and bundled DNA).
2. Diploid = 2 , 2n = 2, 4 chromosomes are shown because of the duplicating of DNA in interphase (S).
3. Law of Segregation. Equal chance of getting the maternal or paternal chromosome which would make the haploid number = 1. in each gamete.
Digital copy of safety rules.
HW for Wednesday 9/4
1: Please fill out personal History Form below (due tomorrow).
2: Complete the form with the Safety Contract I gave you. (Due Friday 9/6)
3: Please have your parent sign the safety contract as well as yourself. Hand it to me
me by Thursday 9/5.
The personal history sheet email is the email I will be using throughout the year.
Please make sure that it is correct. NO SCHOOL EMAILS. THEY DO NOT WORK!
Safety Contract Form and Directions . (Due Friday 9/7)
In this activity, you will write the safety rule (just one sentence), its number from the safety contract (that I gave you and is posted below), AND WHERE IN THE VIDEO (by timecode) that is demonstrated in four safety videos. You need 10 different safety rules and you must use 4 out of the 6 videos. This means if you find 7 in the first video you will need 1 each from the three others to successfully complete the activity. There are many other combinations but you must use 4 videos and you must have 10 different Safety rules written.
Let me restate: You must find 10 unique safety rules throughout the four of the six videos of your choosing.
YOU MUST ALSO IDENTIFY BY TIMECODE WHERE IN THE VIDEO THE SAFETY RULE IS BEING
DEMONSTRATED, DISCUSSED, OR INFERRED.
Example of a COMPLETE answer: 1: Jefferson High VIDEO – #45. Examine glassware before each use. (3:23)
I know what #’s each video covers and where thus will grade your work based on this accuracy.
Safety Video Playlist – There are six videos in this playlist (which is also available in the youtube channel). You must choose 4 of the six videos in the playlist below. To select the video from the playlist click on word icon on the upper left corner to toggle between the list and the video
As you may have figured it might be easier to write you responses in a word doc then cut and paste
it into the form when you are done. This way you have a record which might come useful if there is a issue with submitting.
AP BIO – Safety Form 19 – 20
Todays Lecture: Summer Assignment Round up:
If you need to review.. I did not get to completely finish this in class today but I will tomorrow.
9/5 – Thursday – period 7,8
*Safety resources in the room to review
1. Complete the Summer assignment lecture –
Reviewed: (Completed Yesterday) Use Diagrams above to complete discussion!
1: the pathway from gene to trait (allele).
2. the cell cycle and when chromosomes appear and why
3. how enzymes work – increase the chance for collisions
4. meiosis vs mitosis
5. Mutations that occur in from DNA duplicating in Synthesis (S) phase of INTERPHASE.
These mutations are due from mistakes in the proofreading in G2 of the cell cycle from of
6. reviewed mitosis vs meiosis
7. the driving force of evolution —> mutation AND the cross over event in meiosis.
Both increase genetic diversity which allows a few individuals in a population to have very different alleles which could benefit the species if a catastrophic event occurs and these few individual can survive and reproduce BECAUSE of this allele.
A great example angiosperms – plants that have seeds!!!!
PLEASE DO NOT WORRY IF YOU DO NOT FOLLOW ALL OF THIS. REMEMBER WE ARE LEARNING BY BEING IMMERSED IN THE TOPIC. IT WILL TAKE TIME but because this is the central theme of the course we will be revisiting these ideas over and over.
2. Lab 1 Information:
a) Plant our Hybrid Fast Plant seeds – DAY 0 – 9/6
– F1 generation: ANL anl / YGR ygr
b) Fast Plants Lab – Planting of F1 – DiHybrids
Note taking in our Marbled Notebooks regarding the basics and background of the Lab.
We will continue.
Thursday 9/5 HW:
1: Please complete basic notes in your Marbled notebooks using the presentation on fast Plants
above. Make sure you have the parental cross with genotypes and phenotypes as well as the
upcoming second generation F2 that we will undergo.
Also list the basic objectives of the lab – If not sure I will explain tomorrow.
2. Makes sure safety video form is done and you hand in your signed safety form.Due Friday 9/8
3. AP Statistics begins:
We will now begin our work on understanding the statistical analysis needed to understand the data we collect in our labs. In our fast plant lab how will we know if the ratio of phenotypes from out dihybrid cross is statistically close enough to suggest that our results support Mendelian Genetics? We need to understand the inner workings of investigative labs and the math that will determine the conclusions or overall results of out work. We will be spending some time on this goal and this assignment is the first step.
Please watch the tutorial below, that will show you how to complete the worksheet. Complete the entire worksheet and review with the key below:
Biology statistics 1 – IV & DV.pdf
9/6 – FridAY – period – 8
a) Plant our Hybrid Fast Plant seeds – DAY 0 – 9/6
– F1 generation: ANL anl / YGR ygr
1: Fast Plant Data collection /discussion /Study design
pill vs. Being Happy (anti depressant medication)
Control / placebo effect / double blind
2: Identify the phases of mitosis using root tip squash microscope image –did not get to.
Mitotic Index/ Begin homework / first Page
Mitotic Index = using math to determine something about Biology.
Tissue samples that can quantified.
Downs syndrome is due to having 3 homologous pairs of chromosome 21 NOT 23 as I stated.
Also it is unknown why the extra chromosome at 21 causes the condition but it is speculated that the extra proteins may disrupt part of the fragile balance of chemical reactions in our body that maintains homeostasis.
Here is a karyotype of an individual with Down Syndrome:
Is this a male or female? Answer below.
So how does one get a more than 2 homologous chromosomes as a zygote (2n = 47) ?
It happens due to nondisjunction which when the chromosomes do not segregate (sister chromatids do not detach in meiosis 1 and thus THAT PAIR segregates into the gamete in meiosis II. The individual that gets (n – 1) gamete does not survive.
Remember that there are 2 divisions in meiosis to cut the haploid number into a diploid.
Female: There are 2 X chromosomes (XX). Males have one X and one Y (XY).
9/6 – Friday – Weekend HW:
1: Complete Mitosis – Cell Cycle.pdf worksheet and review with the key below.
2: You will probably need me to explain this worksheet read the notes below that explain the activity in the worksheet.
What you are going to do is count all of the cells in the field of view of microscope. All this means is that you count all of the cells in your picture which represents what you see in a microscope if you were looking at cells.
A) Using your understanding of Interphase and all of the phases of mitosis you will categorize each cell as either
Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis. If you have to look at your textbook to review these phases is on page 232 – 234.
B) Once you have categorized each cell then complete the math to determine the mitotic index. This is just the fraction or decimal value:
The total number of cells in Mitosis/Total number of cells
The total time in the phase uses the assumption that there is a 24 hour life cycle of these cells. to calculate that calculate the percentage of cells in each phase/ total cells and multiply by 24 hours. See the video for explanation. It is really easy.
Let me give you an example:
Using the cell numbers in the diagram to categorize.
|| 18, 26
|| 1 cell
*Cells #7 and #23 represents cells that have just completed Telophase (or Cytokinesis). I should of given each of these their own number.
You may disagree with a couple or a few of my cells in some of the categories. You are not wrong to question me! In fact you should always question your teacher! Considering Prophase starts with “visible chromosomes” condensing one could argue cell #14 is in prophase and you would not be wrong. I think cell #14 does not show individual chromosomes yet but neither of us are wrong, just a difference of opinion. Remember there is really no beginning or end of these phases. It a continuum. Only us humans try to define this. The cell is busy duplicating and does not care! So if you have a few cells in different categories that are different from me and have a valid explanation then it is perfectly fine. Doesn’t Early Prophase looks like late Interphase?
|| 18, 26
|| 1 cell
|19/28 x 100=
3/28 x 100=
|1/28 x 100=
3/28 x 100=
|2/28 x 100=
| .679 x 24 =
| .107 x 24 =
|.036 x 24 =
| .107 x 24 =
| .071 x 24 =
The math here is easy. We are just taking percentages using the basic formula:
Part / Total x 100 = percentage
In our case we are using
Number of cells in each Phase/total cells (28) = %
This percentage tells us the percent of the time that onion cell spends in each phase.
If more onion cells are in one phase (interphase) than another in a single snapshot of time with a group of cells we can assume that normal onion cell spends more time in one phase (Interphase).
If we know the percentage of the time the cells spend in each phase and We know the life span of one cell (we will use 24 hours) we can calculate the hours each phase exists.
Homework worksheet & key
After you have tried the worksheet using my notes above, please view the video below and the key above to review.
3: Please watch the lecture on the Central Tendencies.
4: Complete worksheet below and review with key.
Biology statistics 2 – Central Tendency Key.pdf
End of week 1!