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Q1 – Week 1 – 20-21

Week of 9/8 – 9/11 * THE FIRST WEEK OF JOY!

*Please Refresh as I update and make daily changes to this page.
 
Welcome Back!  (which probably is not appropriate since you have never been here!) 
 
 
Grading, Reflection, Assessment, and Feedback
Things I have learned form 8 years of distance/hybrid teaching:
 
                              1. Design – surgical design with your teaching voice – 
                        2. Assessment (online)
                        3. Feedback – immediate
                        4. Connectivity – teacher access
 
    These four constructs enabled me to Have incredible Educational Momentum in and out the class.
 
Quarter Grade:  20% average of all Quizzes or Homework assignments (Forms)
                                 30% average of all Labs
                                 50% average of all Tests
 
Introduction:
 

Congratulations being accepted into AP Biology as a freshman!! Only the top students in your graduating class get to have this opportunity.  AP Biology like all AP courses is a college level high school class.  Students who pass AP exams can earn college credit but the greatest benefits come from building a strong academic resume or transcript that will help students achieve admissions to colleges and universities.  Students who challenge themselves are strong candidates.  Students who exceed in these AP course are the best candidates

Most High Schools only allow Juniors and Seniors that have already taken high school Biology, Chemistry or possibly Physics before they can take AP Biology.  Given the fact that most of my students are freshman that have not had any high school biology or chemistry, increases the difficulty.  Given the current pandemic and the remote instruction days that we will have, only increases weight of this course.  
 
I say this to you because YOU MUST BE ALL IN to achieve in this class.  I have designed this course so that you can exceed even though you are a freshman without any previous high school science classes taken but YOU MUST BE ALL IN! Think about it you are making the leap from middle school directly to college and skipping high schoolIt can be done and it has been done here in Westhampton Beach High School for the last 6 years!
There are only about 5000 freshman who take this test out of the 240,000 students who take AP Biology word-wide.  You have an amazing opportunity to distance yourself from other college applicants in your graduating class who do not take this course yet alone be in small group of students internationally that are taking this course as freshman!. 
 
Here is the AP Data from last years test ( which was online and a shortened version of the test):
 

 

Now you can see that 76.9 % of my students achieved an AP of a 3 or better while the rest of the world (it is an international test) only had 68.8 % of the students get a 3 or higher on the test.   Everyone who signs up for AP Biology is an above average student by far so think about this.  Out of a self-selected group that compromises very intelligent students (AP Bio students who are mostly juniors and seniors) only 68.8 % earned a 3 or better on the AP test.  Opportunity to distance yourself! ALL OF my students are 9th graders so you we did really well as compared to the mostly 11th and 12 graders to take this course internationally.
 
68.8% of 240,448 students = 165,428 students who got a 3 or higher on the AP Chemistry Test
 
There about 2 million applicants to US colleges and Universities thus
 
165,428/2,000,000 = only 8.3% of all applicants have accomplished this feat.
Of course my goal is always 100% of the class achieves a 3 or better and I have had many years that I had 100% but that depends IF YOU ARE ALL IN!   Everyone of my students who was ALL IN did get a 3 or better this year.  Everyone who was NOT ALL IN did not earn a 3 or better.  
 
BUT WAIT THERE IS MORE!  You represent only 5000 students taking this course as high school freshman in the entire world!  So
 
                     5000 /2,000,000  = 0.25 % of all college applicants have taken AP Biology as a freshman!
 
Just being in the this class makes you very attractive to colleges and if you exceed as most of my students because they are ALL IN that percentage decreases!!!!
 
So my message is clear.  Take this course and be dedicated to it!  Do not try to “fit this in” to your schedule.
Be one of the very few who takes this course and even the very fewer who exceed at it!
 
Those that were dedicated to this task finished all 3 Summer Assignments regardless of how uncomfortable you may have been in the process (which is normal).  Those that did not get to the finish line may not be in the right class.
 
Now grades and AP tests are not my only focus here although one of my goals is to provide you with tools necessary to earn a 3 or better on the AP Biology test.  My goal is to open up a world around you through your understanding of biology.  My goal is for you to understand yourself better through my course.  My goal is to give you the possible ability to love biology or at least appreciate it and science in general.  All it took for me was one teacher and one science class to change my life.
 
I will try to do the same for you and it begins and ends with my class website. Everything will be posted here including class worksheets, keys, homework, notes, video lectures and video tutorials, and labs.
 
If you ever have a question please email me or text through REMIND (which you should have already signed up for in the summer).
 
 
       Email:  grodskib@whbschools.org                              Remind: Link to Sign up with Remind 
 
 
In my opening letter to you in the summer institute I said lets enjoy the fall.  That was because I asked a lot of you this summer.  We will enjoy the fall because of all the hard work many of you put in to establish or begin the process of learning many biology concepts and skills.   I will begin the year where you left off in Evolution and start connecting all the individual units together in the process so you can start to see the beauty in this topic.  Another goal of mine is to connect the 1st day of school to the last day and every day in between. EVERYTHING CONNECTS!!
 
Lets Go!
Schedule:
 
This year is a little different than the past for obvious reasons so please pay particular to the posts for your particular section:
 
BECAUSE OF LAB SCIENCE CLASS and Academic study hall We WILL EMPLOY AN “A,B,C,D” SYSTEM.  THIS IS A BIT CONFUSING BUT TO LIMIT THE CONFUSION I HAVE ASSIGNED A COLOR CODE TO FOLLOW FROM YOUR FIRST DAY’S SCHEDULE.
 
On the first day your schedule you will determine your class code to follow the rest of this year:
 
BLUE  = 7(A) AP BIO ACADEMIC STUDY              /     7(C) 8(A,C) AP BIOLOGY
RED     = 7(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION                  /     7(C) 8(A,C) 20-21 REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
The 4 day – A, B, C, D cycle looks like this:
                                                       Day                      Period
                                                                             7                                  8                              
                
                                              In class:         A         Academic Study               AP BIOLOGY                  
                                   Remote:                       Academic Study                   AP BIOLOGY              
 
                                         In class:         B         AP BIOLOGY                   AP BIOLOGY                      
                                                          Remote:                    AP BIOLOGY                 AP BIOLOGY           
 
                                                 In class:              C         AP BIOLOGY                   AP BIOLOGY              
                                   Remote:                     AP BIOLOGY                AP BIOLOGY       
 
                                   In class:          D         Academic Study               AP BIOLOGY  
                                   Remote:                     Academic Study             Academic Study     
                 
 
Example 4 day Schedule:   I = In person,  R = Remote
 
 
9/  – Tuesday “A” Day – period 7A, 8A –  7(A) AP BIO ACADEMIC STUDY / 7(C) 8(A,C) AP BIOLOGY
                                             –period 7A, 8A -R  7 (A) REMOTE INSTR                 / 7(C) 8(A,C) 20-21 REMOTE INSTR
                                                
 
9/  –  Wednesday – “B” Day  period 7B, 8B– I   7(B) 8(B,D)  AP BIOLOGY – (double period Lab)
                                                       -period 7B, 8B -R  7(B) 8(B,D)  AP BIOLOGY – REMOTE INSTR
 
                                                     
9/  – Thursday- “C” Day – period 7C, 8C -I     7(C) 8(A,C)  AP BIOLOGY – (double period Lab)
                                                 –period 7C, 8C   7(C) 8(A,C)  AP BIOLOGY – REMOTE INSTR
                                                      
 
9/ – Friday – “D” Day – period 7D,8D – I   7(D)  AP BIO ACADEMIC STUDY / 7(B) 8(B,D) AP BIOLOGY
                                          – period 7D,8D – R  7(D)  REMOTE INSTR                 / 7(B) 8(B,D) AP BIOLOGY REMOTE INSTR
                                                     
 
Extra Help Schedule:
 
Here is the extra help schedule for the school year. Extra help will take place virtually from 2:20-3:05 according to the following schedule. I will have extra help everyday including Friday and you are free to join in the zoom session links IF you do not need to be present for other classes. This means that you cannot be in my extra help unless on a Tuesday UNESS YOU DO NOT NEED math, social studies, music, or Phys. Ed extra help.
 
Monday & Thursday

English

Science

LOTE

Art/Bus/Tech

Tuesday & Wednesday

Math

Social Studies

Music

Phys. Ed.

 

Using printer out of class:
My classroom printer is web – connected and has its own email address.  Email files to your printer to print from anywhere at anytime.
 
My classrooms email address: 
opfec23onra95@hpeprint.com
 
Write an email to the following address and then attach file to print.
 
Homework Prior to 9/8:
1.  Please log into your AP Central Account (or create one) and join the AP Chemistry class (AP Classroom). The AP coordinator at our school must use those online accounts to order AP tests in the spring. IF you do not log in or create an account you risk not having an AP test to take in the spring (regardless if you paid for it or not).
The Join codes per class are posted below.
 
2. Also make sure you have a private gmail account that you should of established this summer.  School gmail account do not allow any incoming mail that is not from the school server.  That means you will not get keys or results from forms if you use the school email account.
 
3.  Complete the Introduction  Form – this will count as your first Quiz Grade.
      It will cover all of the introductory information given above.
 

Introduction Form AP Biology

 
 
Please follow the instructions with this link below to join the Ap Classroom:
 
 
The remote and in-school section are really in the same class so everyone with Mr. Grodski AP Biology will use the same Join Code.
 Join code:

THIS IS THE BEGINNING OF EVERYTHING!
“The first day of class should connect to the last day and every day in between!”
 
*Remember that I put the plan for the day below for each day and then I adjust BASED on what we accomplish. These pages are fluid and thus you must refresh each day.
 
 
9/8  – Tuesday “A” Day – period 7A, 8A –  7(A) AP BIO ACADEMIC STUDY / 7(C) 8(A,C) AP BIOLOGY
                                               –period 7A, 8A -R  7 (A) REMOTE INSTR                 / 7(C) 8(A,C) 20-21 REMOTE INSTR
 
REMOTE INSTRUCTION STUDENTS: PERIOD 7 – ACADEMIC STUDY – NO LESSON – JUST A STUDY HALL
REMOTE INSTRUCTION STUDENTS: PERIOD 8 – AP BIOLOGY REMOTE – Please go to week one remote page.
 
period 7  –  AP BIO ACADEMIC STUDY – Study Hall
period 8 –   AP BIO Class-  
 
Main focus: To interconnect all the concepts learned this summer. 
 
1: Summer Assignment Wrap – Up Lecture – used notes in week 1 – remote instruction page
 
 
Digital copy of safety rules.
AP BIOLOGY Grodski Safety Contract- 2015.pdf
View Download
                                       
9/8 Tuesday Homework 
 
1: Please fill out personal History Form below (due tomorrow).
 
2: Complete the form with the Safety Contract I gave you. (Due Friday 9/11)
 
3. Complete the form based on today’s lecture (this is only for the in-person students)
as the REMOTE students have done this for classwork. (Due Tomorrow).
Personal History:
The personal history sheet email is the email I will be using throughout the year.
Please make sure that it is correct. NO SCHOOL EMAILS. THEY DO NOT WORK!

AP Biology 20/21 Personal History Form

 
 Safety Contract Form and Directions . (Due Friday 9/11)
 
In this activity, you will write the safety rule (just one sentence), its number from the safety contract (that I gave you and is posted below),  AND WHERE IN THE VIDEO (by timecode) that is demonstrated in four safety videos.  You need 10 different safety rules and you must use 4 out of the 6 videos. This means if you find 7 in the first video you will need 1 each from the three others to successfully complete the activity.  There are many other combinations but you must use 4 videos and you must have 10 different Safety rules written.
 
Let me restate: You must find 10 unique safety rules throughout the four of the six videos of your choosing. 
YOU MUST ALSO IDENTIFY BY TIMECODE WHERE IN THE VIDEO THE SAFETY RULE IS BEING 
DEMONSTRATED, DISCUSSED, OR INFERRED.
 
Example of a COMPLETE answer: 1: Jefferson High VIDEO – #45. Examine glassware before each use. (3:23)
I  know what #’s each video covers and where thus will grade your work based on this accuracy.
Safety Video Playlist – There are six videos in this playlist (which is also available in the youtube channel).  You must choose 4 of the six videos in the playlist below.  To select the video from the playlist click on word icon on the upper left corner  to toggle between the list and the video 
selected. 
 
As you may have figured it might be easier to write you responses in a word doc then cut and paste 
it into the form when you are done. This way you have a record which might come useful if there is a issue with submitting.
 

AP BIO – Safety Form 20 – 21

 

 
Tonights homework on Summer Assignment connections:
NOT FOR REMOTE STUDENTS!
 

Summer Assignment Connections

 

Todays (last years) Lecture: Summer Assignment Round up:
If you need to review..  I did not get to completely finish this in class today but I will tomorrow.
 

9/8  –  Wednesday – “B” Day  period 7B, 8B– I   7(B) 8(B,D)  AP BIOLOGY – (double period Lab)
                                                          -period 7B, 8B -R  7(B) 8(B,D)  AP BIOLOGY – REMOTE INSTR
 
 -period 7B, 8B -R  7(B) 8(B,D)  AP BIOLOGY – REMOTE INSTR
 
Blue Team – Please follow along in the REMOTE INSTRUCTION PAGE – week one
 
period 7B, 8B– I   7(B) 8(B,D)  AP BIOLOGY – (double period Lab) – 
 
RED TEAM – DOUBLE PERIOD LAB – 
 
Main focus:  To apply our connections yesterday through a lab that will test Mendelian Genetics with a dihybrid cross between FAST Plants.
 
Reviewed aspects of yesterdays discussion – Summer Assignment Connections:
 
Reviewed: (Completed Yesterday) Use Diagrams above to complete discussion!
 
A: the pathway from gene to trait (allele).
B: the cell cycle and when chromosomes appear and why
C: how enzymes work – increase the chance for collisions
D: meiosis vs mitosis
E:  Mutations that occur in from DNA duplicating in Synthesis (S) phase of INTERPHASE.
    These mutations are due from mistakes in the proofreading in G2 of the cell cycle from of       
    duplicated DNA.
F: reviewed mitosis vs meiosis
G: the driving force of evolution —> mutation AND the cross over event in meiosis.
   Both increase genetic diversity which allows a few individuals in a population to have very different alleles which could benefit the species if a catastrophic event occurs and these few individual can survive and reproduce BECAUSE of this allele.
 
A great example angiosperms – plants that have seeds!!!!
 
PLEASE DO NOT WORRY IF YOU DO NOT FOLLOW ALL OF THIS. REMEMBER WE ARE LEARNING BY BEING IMMERSED IN THE TOPIC.  IT WILL TAKE TIME but because this is the central theme of the course we will be revisiting these ideas over and over.
 
2.  Lab 1 Information:

 

Wisconsin Fast Plants

 
    a) Plant our Hybrid Fast Plant seeds – DAY 0 – 9/9
        – F1 generation: ANL anl / YGR ygr
 
    b) Fast Plants Lab  – Planting of F1 – DiHybrids 
     Note taking in our Marbled Notebooks regarding the basics and background of the Lab.
      
9/8  –  Wednesday – “B” Day  HOMEWORK:                                   
1:  Please complete basic notes in your Marbled notebooks using the presentation on fast Plants    
      above.  Make sure you have the parental cross with genotypes and phenotypes as well as the      
     upcoming second generation F2 that we will undergo. 
      Also list the basic objectives of the lab – If not sure I will explain tomorrow.
     
2.  Makes sure safety video form is done and you hand in your signed safety form.Due Friday 9/11
3.  AP Statistics begins: 
 
We will now begin our work on understanding the statistical analysis needed to understand the data we collect in our labs. In our fast plant lab how will we know if the ratio of phenotypes from out dihybrid cross is statistically close enough to suggest that our results support Mendelian Genetics? We need to understand the inner workings of investigative labs and the math that will determine the conclusions or overall results of out work.  We will be spending some time on this goal and this assignment is the first step.
 
Please watch the tutorial below,  that will show you how to complete the worksheet. Complete the entire worksheet and review with the key below:
Biology statistics 1 – IV & DV.pdf
Biology statistics 1 – IV & DV KEY.pdf
View Download

AP Biology Statistics

End of Wednesday..

9/10  – Thursday- “C” Day – period 7C, 8C -I     7(C) 8(A,C)  AP BIOLOGY – (double period Lab)
                                                    –period 7C, 8C   7(C) 8(A,C)  AP BIOLOGY – REMOTE INSTR
 –period 7C, 8C   7(C) 8(A,C)  AP BIOLOGY – REMOTE INSTRUCTION –
 
– period 7C, 8C -I     7(C) 8(A,C)  AP BIOLOGY – (double period Lab)
a) Plant our Hybrid Fast Plant seeds – DAY 0 – 9/9
        – F1 generation: ANL anl / YGR ygr
 
b) Fast Plants Lab  – Planting of F1 – DiHybrids 
     Note taking in our Marbled Notebooks regarding the basics and background of the Lab.
c) Fast Plant Data collection /discussion /Study design
        pill vs. Being Happy (anti depressant medication)
        Control / placebo effect / double blind
        Hypothesis /Graph
 
 
d)  Identify the phases of mitosis using root tip squash microscope image  
      Mitotic Index/ Begin homework / first Page
      Mitotic Index = using math to determine something about Biology.
      Tissue samples that can quantified.  
Downs syndrome is due to having 3 homologous pairs of chromosome 21 NOT 23 as I stated.
Also it is unknown why the extra chromosome at 21 causes the condition but it is speculated that the extra proteins may disrupt part of the fragile balance of chemical reactions in our body that maintains homeostasis.
Here is a karyotype of an individual with Down Syndrome:

   

    Is this a male or female? Answer below.


So how does one get a more than 2 homologous

                               chromosomes as a zygote (2n = 47) ?

 

It happens due to nondisjunction which when the chromosomes do not segregate (sister chromatids do not detach in meiosis 1 and thus THAT PAIR segregates into the gamete in meiosis II. The individual that gets (n – 1) gamete does not survive.

Remember that there are 2 divisions in meiosis to cut the haploid number into a diploid.

Female: There are 2 X chromosomes (XX). Males have one X and one Y (XY).
9/10  – Thursday- “C” Day Homework:
 
1: Complete Mitosis – Cell Cycle.pdf worksheet and review with the key below.
 
Homework worksheet & key
 
Mitosis – Cell Cycle.pdf
 
Mitosis – Cell Cycle KEY.pdf
View Download
 
2:  You will probably need me to explain this worksheet read the notes below that explain the activity in the worksheet.
What you are going to do is count all of the cells in the field of view of microscope. All this means is that you count all of the cells in your picture which represents what you see in a microscope if you were looking at cells.
 
A) Using your understanding of Interphase and all of the phases of mitosis you will categorize each cell as either
Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis.  If you have to look at your textbook to review these phases is on page 232 – 234.
 
B) Once you have categorized each cell then complete the math to determine the  mitotic index.  This is just the fraction or decimal value:
 
                                          The total number of cells in Mitosis/Total number of cells
 
The total time in the phase uses the assumption that there is a 24 hour life cycle of these cells. to calculate that calculate the percentage of cells in each phase/ total cells and multiply by 24 hours.  See the video for explanation. It is really easy.
Let me give you an example:

 Using the cell numbers in the diagram to categorize.

 Interphase  Prophase  Metaphase  Anaphase  Telophase
1,5,6,7,10,
12,14, 13
16,17,19,
20,21,22,
24,25,23
27,28

2,4,9,

 

 3  8,11,15  18, 26
19 cells  3 cells   1 cell 3 cells  2 cells 

 

*Cells #7  and #23 represents cells that have just completed Telophase (or Cytokinesis). I should of given each of these their own number.
You may disagree with a couple or a few of my cells in some of the categories. You are not wrong to question me! In fact you should always question your teacher!  Considering Prophase starts with “visible chromosomes” condensing one could argue cell #14 is in prophase and you would not be wrong.   I think cell #14 does not show individual chromosomes yet but neither of us are wrong,  just a difference of opinion.  Remember there is really no beginning or end of these phases. It a continuum. Only us humans try to define this. The cell is busy duplicating and does not care!  So if you have a few cells in different categories that are different from me and have a valid explanation then it is perfectly fine. Doesn’t Early Prophase looks like late Interphase?

 

 Interphase  Prophase  Metaphase  Anaphase  Telophase
1,5,6,7,10,
12,14, 13
16,17,19,
20,21,22,
24,25,23
27,28

2,4,9,

 

 3  8,11,15  18, 26

19 cells

3 cells   1 cell 3 cells 

2 cells

19/28 x 100=
67.9 %

3/28 x 100=

10.7 %
1/28 x 100=
3.6 %
3/28 x 100=

10.7 % 

2/28 x 100=
7.1 %
 .679 x 24 =
16.3 hours
 .107 x 24 =
2.6 hours
.036 x 24 =
0.7 hours 
 .107 x 24 =
2.6 hours 
 .071 x 24 =
 1.7 hours

 

The math here is easy. We are just taking percentages using the basic formula:
 Part / Total   x 100 = percentage
 
In our case we are using
 
Number of cells in each Phase/total cells (28) = %
 
This percentage tells us the percent of the time that onion cell spends in each phase.
If more onion cells are in one phase (interphase) than another in a single snapshot of time with a group of cells we can assume that normal onion cell spends more time in one phase (Interphase).
 
If we know the percentage of the time the cells spend in each phase and We know the life span of one cell (we will use 24 hours) we can calculate the hours each phase exists.

Homework worksheet & key

 
Mitosis – Cell Cycle.pdf
 
Mitosis – Cell Cycle KEY.pdf
View Download
 
After you have tried the worksheet using my notes above, please view the video below and the key above to review.
 
3: Please watch the lecture on the Central Tendencies.
 
4: Complete worksheet below and review with key.
Biology statistics 2 – Central Tendency.pdf
View Download
 
Biology statistics 2 – Central Tendency Key.pdf
View Download
 AP Biology Reference Tables.pdf
 View Download
End of  Thursday..

9/11 – Friday – “D” Day – period 7D,8D – I   7(D)  AP BIO ACADEMIC STUDY / 7(B) 8(B,D) AP BIOLOGY
                                               – period 7D,8D – R  7(D)  REMOTE INS           / 7(B) 8(B,D) AP BIOLOGY REMOTE INSTR
                                                     
Main Focus:  To connect our statistic homework concepts to our lab 1 and onion root tip data.
Keep connecting chromosomal line of inheritance, Mendelian Genetics, Growth cycle, and evolution.  
 
  
Day 3 – (Fast Plants)
1.  Fast Plant Data Lab 1 Collection in Marbles:  Phenotype identification
 
2.   Fast Plant Data Lab 2 Collection in Marbles:  Percent Germination
 
What is happening right now with our FAST PLANTS?

                           

 

AP Biology Statistics

*Connections – We have been learning about “Central Tendencies” primarily at home but I want you to understand  that Central Tendency statistics is very appropriate to BIOLOGY because of the alleles that organisms have are the result of natural selection or evolution.  A synonym for central tendencies is Normal Distribution and the distribution of alleles from populations of organisms will generally fit in a normal distribution or bell curve.
There will be more individuals near the mean (norm) than any other because this allele measured at the mean gives the organism advantage to survive in its current ecosystem.  Individuals at the far left and right of the Normal Distribution curve do not have the same advantage and thus few of them survive before reproducing.  The key here is that the individuals that are multiple standard deviations away from the mean (norm) provide the population with VERY IMPORTANT DIVERSITY that may result in preventing the extinction of the species.  Those few individuals with very different forms of the “norm” allele may struggle to survive in current condition but their frequency COULD rise if condition change and their allele NOW gives them the advantage.  This is Natural Selection. The KEY is that the population must have the diversity before the change in conditions.  If it does not the species will go extinct which is the fate of most species.
If we were measuring the height of a corn stalk, what would be so disadvantageous to the corn plant to have very small stalks and very tall stalks?
 
9/11 – Friday – “D” Day Homework – Due Monday
 
1. Please complete the  Week 1 Roundup Form.
     The form is below:
 
2: Please view my lecture below on SEM (Standard Error of the Mean)
 
3: Complete the Stats 3 worksheet based on what I teach you on SEM . 
   I gave this worksheet in class.
Biology statistics 3 – SEM.pdf
View Download
 
3: Review with the key.
 
Biology statistics 3 – SEM Key p.pdf
View Download
 
 
Week 1 Round up form – 
 

Week 1 Roundup Form 20/21

 

The beginning part of the form is based on the lecture below:
                                     
 
 
 
 Remote Instruction:
9/8 –  Tuesday- REMOTE INSTRUCTION STUDENTS – 
                                                                                           
period 7A, 8A -R  7 (A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION  / 7(C) 8(A,C) 20-21 REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
Summer Assignment Connections:
 
Please read the notes below AND THEN VIEW THE LECTURE BELOW:
 
Today in class I will be connecting many of the concepts that you initially learned this summer with a discussion that will contain the following:
 
The purpose here was to interconnect the important concepts of  Mendelian Genetics, Chromosomal line of inheritance, and Evolution.
 
I discussed 2n = 2 Diploid individual to cell cycle where DNA is duplicated in cell growth cycle.
Notice in the diagram below there are 4 chromosomes at the End of G2 (growth phase 2) due to the duplication of the DNA in the S (synthesis phase).
 
Notice the Cell drawn has 2n = 2 BUT 4 chromosomes are drawn!  This is due to the duplication of DNA in the S phase of the growth cycle in preparation for Mitosis.
 
This diagram below represents a pie chart in the life cycle of the smallest unit of life (a cell).  A cell spends the greatest amount of time in interphase (any part of the life cycle where the cell is not in Mitosis) and the smallest amount of time in Mitosis.

G1 :  Growth Phase 
S    :  Synthesis Phase   
G2 :  Growth Phase

                 Interphase = G1, S, G2

So a cell is in Interphase when it is not duplicating itself.  Mitosis starts with Prophase when the chromosomes condense (become visible under a stain with a microscope).

So a chromosome is just a coiled up version of DNA that is needed for it to segregate (move and separate from its exact copy (Sister chromatid).

DNA is constantly used to code for and make the proteins that spark the chemical reactions that give us our traits.
DNA cannot be coiled up in chromosome IF it to be used to. 

*Notice that in G2 the cell double checks the NEW DNA copy that is made for mismatched code (MUTATIONS!)
Normally the cell repairs the mismatched code and but in very rare occasions the cell does not correct the incorrect code and a mutation occurs.
 
A mutation COULD result in a different Amino Acid (makes proteins) and a different shaped protein that does not catalyze the chemical reaction to make the targeted allele (red pigment in the red flower).  This “broken gene” becomes the recessive allele and no red pigment would make the flower white.
 
Keep in mind mutations are how we gain new alleles.  The red pigment for the red color resulted as a mutation from another allele. If the new allele from a mutation is beneficial or neutral (no negative or positive effect), the organism keeps that allele because it is able to survive and reproduce maintaining the new trait in the next generation.  This is how evolution works!  If the mutation is lethal to the organism the trait does not get passed to the next generation because organism will die before it can reproduce.  
 

Given the illustration to the right:

1.  Are we looking at Interphase or Mitosis?

Answer below.

2.  What is the Diploid number? 2n = ?

Answer below.

3.  Which Mendelian Law describes the random separating of the sister chromatids into gametes?

Answer below.

1. Mitosis, we see the chromosomes silly!!!! In interphase there are no chromosomes (wound up and bundled DNA).
 
2. Diploid = 2 , 2n = 2, 4 chromosomes are shown because of the duplicating of DNA in interphase (S).
 
3.  Law of Segregation.  Equal chance of getting the maternal or paternal chromosome which would make the haploid number = 1. in each gamete.
Chromosomes are the form of DNA that is wound up around histones (proteins that provide structural support) that become nucleosomes and chromatin fiber.  In this wound up state DNA cannot be used by the cell.  This is the state of DNA (the code for the proteins) that is necessary for segregation in Mitosis and Meiosis and prophase begins when DNA condenses into chromosomes.  We can use a light microscope to view cells in Mitosis by identifying the appearance of chromosomes.  When a cell is in interphase (NOT MITOSIS) the DNA is not coiled up in chromosomes so that the DNA can be used to code and makes proteins for normal cell life functions.
Imagine if the cell did not wind its DNA into chromosomes.  How would it separate or segregate into a daughter cell?  Imagine a plate of spaghetti that you want to separate.  How would you do this with the accuracy needed for life to exist in the next generation.  How do you make sure each daughter cell gets an exact copy? 
 
Human Karyotype – A picture of the homologous pairs of chromosomes (23 in humans)
Most often, this is done using the chromosomes in the white blood cells. A picture of the chromosomes is taken through the microscope. This can be accomplished because DNA winds into chromosomes in prophase!!!
Then, the picture of the chromosomes is cut up and rearranged by the chromosome’s size.
 
1. Could these pictures of these chromosome been taken in interphase?  Answer below.
 
2. Also did the person who made this karyotype eliminate some chromosomes for simplicity? Answer below.
 
Notice the 23 pairs!
 
1. No because the DNA is not wound up in chromosome in interphase so that the DNA can be used to make proteins as part of the normal function of the cell life cycle.
 
2. YES they had to!  Chromosomes start appearing in prophase so they would appear with their duplicated sister chromatids.
 
 
Please view today’s lecture:
 
Complete the Classwork form below based on the above notes and class lecture.

Summer Assignment Connections


9/9 –  Wednesday – “B” Day –  REMOTE INSTRUCTION STUDENTS – 

 
-period 7B, 8B -R  7(B) 8(B,D)  AP BIOLOGY – REMOTE INSTR – BLUE TEAM is HOME today!
 
1. Please complete the attendance Form:
2. Join Zoom meeting to attend class remotely:
 
Main focus:  To apply our connections yesterday through a lab that will test Mendelian Genetics with a dihybrid cross between FAST Plants.
 

9/9 AP Biology – REMOTE INSTRUCTION ATTENDANCE

 

 
 
Today we will have a zoom meeting where I will give you a live lesson on taking notes for LAB 1.
 
IF you lose connection please try connecting but if you cannot I WILL RECORD THIS SESSION AND POST THE RECORDED VIDEO LINK HERE.
 
Mr. Grodski is inviting you to a scheduled Zoom meeting.
Topic: AP Biology 9/9 – LAB 1
Time: Sep 9, 2020 12:00 PM Eastern Time (US and Canada)
Join Zoom Meeting
https://us02web.zoom.us/j/86069784279?pwd=cXgyL011cUVUclJoU1B2SnQzN2UvQT09
Meeting ID: 860 6978 4279
Passcode: 8eYt9m
One tap mobile
+16465588656,,86069784279#,,,,,,0#,,019240# US (New York)
Dial by your location
                                                                +1 646 558 8656 US (New York)
Lab 1 Information:

Wisconsin Fast Plants

Link to view the Zoom Meeting for the introduction to Lab 1:
 
9/9 –  Wednesday – “B” Day Homework: posted in week one page

9/10 –  Thursday – “C” Day –  REMOTE INSTRUCTION STUDENTS –
                           –period 7C, 8C   7(C) 8(A,C)  AP BIOLOGY – REMOTE INSTRUCTION – DOUBLE PERIOD

9/10 AP Biology – REMOTE INSTRUCTION ATTENDANCE

We will do a live Zoom meeting today and connect at about 12:10.  I will post the link to today’s live stream:
 

Mr. Grodski is inviting you to a scheduled Zoom meeting.

Topic: 9/10 AP Biology Zoom Class
Time: Sep 10, 2020 12:00 PM Eastern Time (US and Canada)

Join Zoom Meeting
https://us02web.zoom.us/j/89435670340?pwd=S2lMSHN3TXY0dExQYVpOdm9kU21IQT09

Meeting ID: 894 3567 0340
Passcode: 4tP8i0
One tap mobile
+16465588656,,89435670340#,,,,,,0#,,858690# US (New York)

 
 
WE will accomplish the following today: 
 
a) Fast Plant Data collection /discussion /Study design
        pill vs. Being Happy (anti depressant medication)
        Control / placebo effect / double blind
        Hypothesis /Graph
 
 
b)  Identify the phases of mitosis using root tip squash microscope image  
      Mitotic Index/ Begin homework / first Page
      Mitotic Index = using math to determine something about Biology.
      Tissue samples that can quantified.  
 
c) Mathematical Biology – Mitosis of an onion Root tip
 
Mitosis – Cell Cycle.pdf
 
Mitosis – Cell Cycle KEY.pdf
View Download
 
2:  You will probably need me to explain this worksheet read the notes below that explain the activity in the worksheet.
What you are going to do is count all of the cells in the field of view of microscope. All this means is that you count all of the cells in your picture which represents what you see in a microscope if you were looking at cells.
 
A) Using your understanding of Interphase and all of the phases of mitosis you will categorize each cell as either
Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis.  If you have to look at your textbook to review these phases is on page 232 – 234.
 
B) Once you have categorized each cell then complete the math to determine the  mitotic index.  This is just the fraction or decimal value:
 
                                          The total number of cells in Mitosis/Total number of cells
 
The total time in the phase uses the assumption that there is a 24 hour life cycle of these cells. to calculate that calculate the percentage of cells in each phase/ total cells and multiply by 24 hours.  See the video for explanation. It is really easy.
Let me give you an example:

 Using the cell numbers in the diagram to categorize.

 Interphase  Prophase  Metaphase  Anaphase  Telophase
1,5,6,7,10,
12,14, 13
16,17,19,
20,21,22,
24,25,23
27,28

2,4,9,

 

 3  8,11,15  18, 26
19 cells  3 cells   1 cell 3 cells  2 cells 
*Cells #7  and #23 represents cells that have just completed Telophase (or Cytokinesis). I should of given each of these their own number.
You may disagree with a couple or a few of my cells in some of the categories. You are not wrong to question me! In fact you should always question your teacher!  Considering Prophase starts with “visible chromosomes” condensing one could argue cell #14 is in prophase and you would not be wrong.   I think cell #14 does not show individual chromosomes yet but neither of us are wrong,  just a difference of opinion.  Remember there is really no beginning or end of these phases. It a continuum. Only us humans try to define this. The cell is busy duplicating and does not care!  So if you have a few cells in different categories that are different from me and have a valid explanation then it is perfectly fine. Doesn’t Early Prophase looks like late Interphase?
 Interphase  Prophase  Metaphase  Anaphase  Telophase
1,5,6,7,10,
12,14, 13
16,17,19,
20,21,22,
24,25,23
27,28

2,4,9,

 

 3  8,11,15  18, 26

19 cells

 

3 cells   1 cell 3 cells 

2 cells

 

19/28 x 100=
67.9 %

3/28 x 100=

10.7 %
1/28 x 100=
3.6 %
3/28 x 100=

10.7 % 

2/28 x 100=
7.1 %
 .679 x 24 =
16.3 hours
 .107 x 24 =
2.6 hours
.036 x 24 =
0.7 hours 
 .107 x 24 =
2.6 hours 
 .071 x 24 =
 1.7 hours
The math here is easy. We are just taking percentages using the basic formula:
 Part / Total   x 100 = percentage
 
In our case we are using
 
Number of cells in each Phase/total cells (28) = %
 
This percentage tells us the percent of the time that onion cell spends in each phase.
If more onion cells are in one phase (interphase) than another in a single snapshot of time with a group of cells we can assume that normal onion cell spends more time in one phase (Interphase).
 
If we know the percentage of the time the cells spend in each phase and We know the life span of one cell (we will use 24 hours) we can calculate the hours each phase exists.
 
 
All homework posted in week 1
 
TODAY’s ZOOM STREAM RECORDING:
Topic: 9/10 AP Biology Zoom Class
Start Time : Sep 10, 2020 12:09 PM
 
Meeting Recording:
 
https://drive.google.com/file/d/1IObethBuzIPWrzNoScpkx1ftorDEVDxR/view?usp=sharing
 
 
 

9/11 – Friday – “D” Day – period 7D,8D – R  7(D)  REMOTE INSTR / 7(B) 8(B,D) AP BIOLOGY REMOTE INSTR
                                                 BLUE TEAM IS REMOTE TODAY!
 

9/11 AP Biology – REMOTE INSTRUCTION ATTENDANCE

We will not have a live stream today. The remote AP student Hall period 7 is just a study hall that students in the in person instruction will probably start their weekend homework by completing the weekend roundup form, which one of the assignments given this weekend.
The homework is posted in week one.
Please read the following for period 8: (The other class is collecting data from their germinated FAST PLants)
What is happening right now with our FAST PLANTS?

                           

AP Biology Statistics

*Connections – We have been learning about “Central Tendencies” primarily at home but I want you to understand  that Central Tendency statistics is very appropriate to BIOLOGY because of the alleles that organisms have are the result of natural selection or evolution.  A synonym for central tendencies is Normal Distribution and the distribution of alleles from populations of organisms will generally fit in a normal distribution or bell curve.
There will be more individuals near the mean (norm) than any other because this allele measured at the mean gives the organism advantage to survive in its current ecosystem.  Individuals at the far left and right of the Normal Distribution curve do not have the same advantage and thus few of them survive before reproducing.  The key here is that the individuals that are multiple standard deviations away from the mean (norm) provide the population with VERY IMPORTANT DIVERSITY that may result in preventing the extinction of the species.  Those few individuals with very different forms of the “norm” allele may struggle to survive in current condition but their frequency COULD rise if condition change and their allele NOW gives them the advantage.  This is Natural Selection. The KEY is that the population must have the diversity before the change in conditions.  If it does not the species will go extinct which is the fate of most species.
If we were measuring the height of a corn stalk, what would be so disadvantageous to the corn plant to have very small stalks and very tall stalks?
WEEKEND HOMEWORK is posted under Friday in week one.