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Q1 – Week 6 – 20-21

week 6

Week of 10/12 – 10/16

 

 
The 4 day – A, B, C, D cycle looks like this:
                                                       Day                      Period
                                                                             7                                  8                              
                
                                              In class:         A         Academic Study               AP BIOLOGY                  
                                   Remote:                       Academic Study                   AP BIOLOGY              
 
                                         In class:         B         AP BIOLOGY                   AP BIOLOGY                      
                                                          Remote:                    AP BIOLOGY                 AP BIOLOGY           
 
                                                 In class:              C         AP BIOLOGY                   AP BIOLOGY              
                                   Remote:                     AP BIOLOGY                AP BIOLOGY       
 
  Tuesday                    In class:          D         Academic Study               AP BIOLOGY  
                                   Remote:                     Academic Study             Academic Study     
                 
 
This week’s 5 day Schedule:   I = In person,  R = Remote
 
                                                                                       
10/12  – Monday – Columbus Day – Indigenous People day – 
 
He discovered America?  But he only made landfall in the Bahamas and Cuba?  Wait didn’t the Vikings make the voyage?  Wait the Chinese mapped out the America’s 70 years before the voyage?  Wait, didn’t native american Indian’s “discover” the America’s first?  Wait wasn’t the America’s already here?
 
http://www.history.com/topics/exploration/christopher-columbus
 
I think I should get a National Day!  I discovered Google Forms with Checkbox grids!!!  We will “recognize” next Saturday as National Grodski day and Yes you will not have to go to school!
You will have a form unfortunately…:)
 
                                                      
10/13 –  Tuesday  – “D” Day – period 7D,8D – I   7(D)  AP BIO ACADEMIC STUDY / 7(B) 8(B,D) AP BIOLOGY
                                                      – period 7D,8D – R  7(D)  REMOTE INS  / 7(B) 8(B,D) AP BIOLOGY REMOTE INSTR
                                                     
 
10/14  – Wednesday  “A” Day   – period 7A, 8A –  7(A) AP BIO ACADEMIC STUDY(ASH) / 7(C) 8(A,C) AP BIOLOGY
                                                        –period 7A, 8A -R  7 (A) REMOTE INSTR –  ASH  / 7(C) 8(A,C) 20-21 REMOTE INSTR
 
 
10/15  – Thursday – “B” Day   period 7B, 8B– I   7(B) 8(B,D)  AP BIOLOGY – (double period Lab)
                                                        -period 7B, 8B -R  7(B) 8(B,D)  AP BIOLOGY – REMOTE INSTR
 
 
10/16  – Friday – “C” Day      – period 7C, 8C -I     7(C) 8(A,C)  AP BIOLOGY – (double period Lab)
                                                     –period 7C, 8C   7(C) 8(A,C)  AP BIOLOGY – REMOTE INSTR
                                                      

10/13 –  Tuesday  – “D” Day – period 7D,8D – I   7(D)  AP BIO ACADEMIC STUDY / 7(B) 8(B,D) AP BIOLOGY
                                                      – period 7D,8D – R  7(D)  REMOTE INS  / 7(B) 8(B,D) AP BIOLOGY REMOTE INSTR
                                                     

The Blue team is on remote today. Please move to the Remote Page.

period 7 – Academic Study Hall
period 8 – Class
 
1. Gather AND COUNT seeds from LED / Florescent test groups
2. Gather AND COUNT seeds from Test Cross Group
 
3.  Plant F2 seeds for Lab 1
 
5. Plant test cross seeds for Recombinant Lab
 
6.  Add data to Lab 2!!!
 
                                  
10/13 –  Tuesday  – “D” Day homework
 
1:  Review the last nights homework     
2:  Please read the section below that connects concepts.
3: Watch the video posted below on the evolution of corn (Maize). 
4: Fill out the form below the video. Right below it. The one just under the video. 
 
Please Read
 
So we have learned that there is overwhelming evidence that supports evolution through natural selection.  We have seen that this change can be very quick and through careful work of the Grants in the Galapagos Islands, specifically on Daphne Major, we have seen that evolution in the finches beak depth can occur quickly in response to changing environmental conditions.  Remember that a drought on the island made significant changes in the beak depths in a very short time period. 
 
Notice that in 1977 there was a drought that caused a selective pressure for larger beak depths as only larger seeds were available after this drought. This trend was reversed in the 1980’s as the wet period introduced more smaller seed plants back to the island.

 

At the end of 1982, the Grants witnessed evolution again as a rainy period brought back the diversification of food, especially the small seeds.  So one piece of evidence of evolution is the evolution that we have witnessed first hand, with many thanks to the Grants!
 
Another piece of evidence of evolution, is in the morphology of organisms. That is the structures of organisms that tell a tale of their evolutionary decent.   Evolution is a process of decent with modification that occurs through natural selection as descendants face different environmental  conditions.  As a result  related species (species of organisms that evolved from one to another) can have underlying similarities yet function differently.  Similar structures from evolutionary related organisms is called Homology.
 

These are diagrams of the morphology of mammals who we have identified as being related by evolutionary decent in large part because of there homologous structures.

These structures have different functions (flight in bats) or navigating water (in whales) yet structurally similar.

Notice that all of these organisms have a big bone attached to smaller bones called phalanges (blue).

 

We have classified many organisms in terms of evolutionary descent mainly through morphology in concert with the fossil record.  Even before DNA mapping, scientists have been able to connect the pieces of evolution of organisms from morphology.  Since the advent of DNA sequencing (finding the actual code for genes to show evolutionary relationships) morphology has been found to be very accurate in determining these relationships as DNA data from organisms that are related morphologically are also related similarly in their genetic code.
 
Last night we investigated the evolutionary relationships of early hominids to consider how we evolved.  We used morphology (curved fingers, size and shape of skull, as well as the length of the arms to) to make judgements on the homology of our species with the older species. 
 
The evolution of homo sapiens has many theories. One of which states that the morphology of the early hominids resulted due to a change in diet.  Our current skulls are significantly larger than the skulls that you investigated last night due large part to a larger brain.  A larger brain requires an extreme amount of CONSTANT energy and that could only be achieved when our early ancestors could better control the availability of better nutrition.  Only when out early ancestors began hunting in coordinated large groups and using weapons did the nutrition inprove dramatically. Some theorize that the our evolution to present day humans resulted very quickly like the finches in the Galapagos Islands when we learned how to throw, which lead to improved fitness from improved hunting techniques that lead to improved nutrition.
 
Look at the homology of the skulls found in different parts in the world.  The age of these bones are determined through radioactive dating of surrounding material they were found in.  We will discuss this in class.
Tonights homework is about another way that we were able to have a CONSTANT supply of energy to our larger brains and that is to cultivate plants.  This ability to grow crops came much later than the ability to hunt effectively in larger groups with weapons.  It was a significant development because it allowed humans to gather in larger communities in more permanent residences as they were became less nomadic and less dependent on hunting for all there nutrition.
One important plant that is vital to sustain our current society and one that was has been cultivated for over 8000 years in North and South America is maize or corn.

The Form that is right under the video: 

 

 

 
How AMAIZING was that video!  So the ancestor to corn has been right under our noses all along but because of the mutations in only few genes that happen to be regulatory genes (switches) the 2 organisms are phenotypically very different!  Can you see why I am teaching you about chromosomes with evolution and now introducing more genetics into our discussion?  All these concepts are intertwined.  Can you guess the next major unit we will start?
 
So what is homologous in Maize in corn?  What homologous structure do they both have?
End of Tuesday…

10/14  – Wednesday  “A” Day   – period 7A, 8A –  7(A) AP BIO ACADEMIC STUDY(ASH) / 7(C) 8(A,C) AP BIOLOGY
                                                        –period 7A, 8A -R  7 (A) REMOTE INSTR –  ASH  / 7(C) 8(A,C) 20-21 REMOTE INSTR
 
The red team is on remote today. Please move to the Remote Instruction Page.
 
 
period 7 – Academic Study hall
 
 
period 8 – 
 
. Gather AND COUNT seeds from LED / Florescent test groups
2. Gather AND COUNT seeds from Test Cross Group
 
3.  Plant F2 seeds for Lab 1
 
5. Plant test cross seeds for Recombinant Lab
 
6.  Add data to Lab 2!!!
 
                          
Today’s notes:
Phylogenic Trees and cladograms
 
Phylogenetic trees of the  finches in the Galapagos islands:
Evolutionary relationships of the 13 species. Logic suggests that new species developed from older species and  that this decent occurred with modification or better decent with newer modifications.
 
Notice the current existing species are located to the right.  The more you move to the left the more time has passed or older the species.  Notice the length of the branch (x-axis) denotes the increased age of the species, meaning it will have greater differences in characteristics or more mutations (due to longer time period).  Also Note the node, the point that illustrates the place in the diagram that reveals when speciation has occurred (reproductive isolation).  A clade is group of species that are related more closely because they share a common ancestor.

 

Notice arrow above that points to the Node or common ancestor to all the birds that flew from South America.  
 
Cladograms are diagrams that are very similar to phylogenic trees that show common ancestry between species but are written a bit diffrently.  Cladograms tend to be hypothesis of how organisms are related by morphology, archeology, or genetic mapping.  
 

Cladograms are built using many forms of data. In this case morphological data is used to construct this hypothesis of  how these organisms are most closely related.

Time in these diagrams is the Y – axis so unlike the diagram above, as you move higher and right the species becomes younger or evolved later than the organisms that are lower and to the left.

Notice that these diagram also have Nodes or places that illustrate common ancestors.
In Cladograms, often the new characteristic in written where it first develops.

Notice that the human all the characteristics listed and thus is the last to evolve while the Lamprey has the least of the characteristics and thus evolved much earlier in time.

 

Some cladograms are written this way:

 

10/14  – Wednesday  “A” Day Homework:
1: Please read my notes posted today,
2. Please Watch the Bozeman science video below on Cladograms.
 
3. Try to Complete the Minion’s worksheet. 
    
4. Review with my video below on how to complete the Minion Cladogram.
 
    Understand that a cladogram is a hypothesis of how we think organisms have descended with          modifications .  These modifications are newer traits or alleles.
 
                          Simply put organisms evolve from simple to more complex.
*Remember that Cladograms Phylogenetic trees are not definite but just a logically linear representation how organisms evolved from simpler to more complex traits using all available evidence.  There were originally written with only morphological data from fossils.
These cladograms can often be written in more than one way.  Current cladograms can change if new data (morphology of new fossils, or DNA mapping ) becomes available.  
 
Evolution 1 – Cladograms of Minions.pdf
View Download
Evolution 1 – Cladograms of Minions key p.pdf
View Download
Bozeman science video:
 

Grodski completing the Minion worksheet video:

End of Wednesday…

10/15  – Thursday – “B” Day   period 7B, 8B– I   7(B) 8(B,D)  AP BIOLOGY – (double period Lab)
                                                        -period 7B, 8B -R  7(B) 8(B,D)  AP BIOLOGY – REMOTE INSTR 
 
Period 7:  
 
1. We will continue with the seed counting and harvesting while I finish up grading and sending out graded test 1.
 
Period 8: 
 
1.  TEST 1 review
 
10/15  – Thursday – “B” Day Homework:
 
 
Test 1 Review2 parts
 
a) Review your graded Test with the key that emailed you..  Bring any questions to class  
     Friday. I will explain how I graded the test and make a general review of he test.
 
Please try to understand every question you got incorrect. Your next test will have similar topics and I will COUNT THE BEST GRADE out of 2 for the next test, it is in best interest to review your mistakes.  
b) Make 6 posts to Test 1 Blog: (posted below).
 
        3 of these posts MUST be unique posts regarding the test questions on the test only!
        3 of these posts MUST be a response to someone else.
 
Please try to understand every question you got incorrect. Your next test will have similar topics and I will COUNT THE BEST GRADE out of 2 for the next test, it is in best interest to review your mistakes.  
 Please Refresh the page to see your responses below or updates.

Test 1 Blog ‎‎(Responses)‎‎

 
End of Thursday..

10/16  – Friday – “C” Day      – period 7C, 8C -I     7(C) 8(A,C)  AP BIOLOGY – (double period Lab)
                                                      – period 7C, 8C   7(C) 8(A,C)  AP BIOLOGY – REMOTE INSTR
                  
The Red team is remote today. Please move to the Remote Instruction Page.
 
So what is the best homologous structure we can use to determine the evolutionary relationships?
 
1: Evidence of evolution: Direct Observations, Homology (Morphology), Fossil Record, Biogeography
    – go back and review all slides..
2: Review of Homology and a Maizing Forms
     – go back and review all ideas.
3:  Need to discuss hypothesis of throwing and impact of the brain.
 
1) Test 1 review.
 
2) Description of Phylogentic Trees (time based) and Cladograms
      – a little bit of the Minions
 
3) Final Seed counting and Gathering!!!!!! 
 
 
Evolution 1 – Cladograms of Minions key p.pdf
View Download
Evolution presentation:

 

  
10/16  – Friday – “C” Day – Homework
                  
1.  Add Seed per plant data to your lab! Make all the adjustments to Lab 2 regarding this new piece of a health or evolutionary metric.  The ability to make more seeds is an obvious advantage!
 
I have posted Theo’s LED DATA since most of you were in the fluorescent test group.
 
2:  Please complete the Evolution 2 – Cladograms and biotech.pdf worksheet
      and review with the key below:
*Remember that having similar characteristics among 2 organisms most often means that they have similar genetic code.  So if we base our cladograms on the similarity of genes or the similarity of proteins made then we are really using the best form of comparisons to discern how closely related 2 species are.
Evolution 2 – Cladograms and biotech.pdf
View Download
There is an error in my key.. Can you find it?
Evolution 2 – Cladograms and biotech key p.pdf
View Download
 
3. Please complete the Practice Cladogram Problem and review with video below.
     You could download and print the practice problem or just look on from your screen and use a         piece of paper.
 
Cladogram Practice Problem new.pdf
View Download
End of Week 6!