THERE WAS NO 11th week this quarter so please move to 3rd Quarter – week 1!
1/22 – Monday –
1: A) Completed equilibrium worksheet – explain solidification demo with equilibrium
B) Film canisters then Green Monster
2. Catalyzed reaction – (what biological enzymes would do)
Todays Demo: 2H2O2 -> 2H2O + O2
Very small rate of reaction until a catalyst was added.
Green Monster Demo:
This was a catalyzed reaction that lowered the activation energy and increased the rate of the reaction.
Today’s demo: Just lowering the Ea (activation) but not increasing the ΔG .
Enthapy Driven/sometimes rule
Icy Hot Demo:
CaC2(s) + 2H2O(l, g) → C2H2(g) + Ca(OH)2 (s) (produces the acetylene gas, C2H2)
2C2H2(g) + 5O2(g) → 4CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) (acetylene gas reacts with oxygen, O2)
Both reactions are spontaneous as they both occur.
Is heat leaving or going into the reaction?
1. Complete catalase Lab
1/23- Tuesday – Period 7,8 Lab
1/23 – Tuesday Homework:
End of Tuesday!
1/24 – Wednesday – period 6 – Academic Study Hall
period 7 –
1: pH lesson vs enzyme activity/demo/ complete worksheet
Review Enzyme factors optimum pH and temperature graphs (Tuesday notes)
2. Vitamins and Minerals – presentation
3. Explain HW: Homework review – Categorizing the three major components of Cellular respiration
4. Cellular Respiration Overview – Note taking started!!
1/24 – Optional Wednesday Homework
1. Complete the ph worksheet (given out Tuesday).
1/25 – Thursday period 6
Vitamin and Mineral Lesson –
glucose –> Electron Carriers (NAD+, FAD) –> Electron transport System (Oxygen bonds with H+ to make H2O)
High Energy oxidize glucose high energy electrons used to pump H+ ions against gradient
Electrons these H+ rush out of membrane giving atp synthase energy
Today we learned that the energy that we harness from glucose (from the food we eat) is due to high energy electrons that exist in C – H bonds. These electrons are shared equally because the Carbon and the Hydrogen have almost the same attraction for electrons which allows electrons to have the most freedom. Electrons with the most freedom have the greatest potential energy. When they are held closer to one or another atom the electrons “feel” the nucleus more thus have less potential energy.
The “slow” burn of glucose occurs as we take the high energy of the C-H electrons and convert them into lower energy electrons. This is accomplished by slowly taking these electrons away from the glucose in each stage of cellular respiration ( Glycolysis, Pyruvate oxidation, Citric Acid Cycle, Oxidative Phosphorylation) and combining with the final electron acceptor, oxygen and water is made. In water the electrons are held more tightly or are pulled more to the oxygen (who loves to grab electrons) These electrons are held closer to one of the atoms in a bond and have less freedom leading to a release of energy which is used to make ATP.
Do not forget there is whole host of enzymes that catalyze the many steps needed to slowly grab the high energy electrons. There are also co-enzymes (vitamins!) that help carry these electrons into electron transport system. They include NADH (Vitamin – Niacin), FAD (Vitamin – Vitamin B2 – riboflavin).
Do some vitamins give us energy? No but they help get the free energy!!! to create 34 ATP
1. REDOX : Who is getting oxidized and and reduced: Slide 9 – 17 in Cell Respiration presentation
2. High energy electrons –
a) Identification of Protons, neutrons, electrons
b) Ions vs Atoms
c) Atoms become ions to become stable
d) stability is based upon completing electron shells
e) Ionic Bonding – transfer of electrons to be stable
f) Covalent Bonding – sharing electrons to be stable
Elvira the outer most electron! Electrons that gain electron hold onto electrons tightly and have a smaller radius, like oxygen, which is what oxidation was named from.
1/25 Thursday Homework:
1. Please read below:
2: Please watch the lecture and then answer the questions below:
The electrons that we initially drew in the worksheets that we filled out today in class were placed outside the nucleus. We learned that these negative particles exist in the empty space outside the very small nucleus. In truth they are actually arranged in shells and the periodic table that I gave you gives you the organization of the electrons in these shells. For example Na or sodium.
This atom has 11 proton = +11 (inside the nucleus)
and ……………11 electrons = -11 (outside the nucleus)
Neutral = atom are always 0 charge
How are they arranged?
The 11 electrons are arranged in 3 shells.
2 – 8 – 1
2 electrons 8 electrons 1 electron
in 1st shell in 2nd shell in 3rd shell
Maximum numbers that can fill 1st shell = 2 electrons
2nd shell = 8 electrons
Noble gases, the elements in the last column of the periodic table ARE THE MOST STABLE because they have filled energy levels and ATOMs that do not have filled electron shell CHANGE (oxidize or reduce) to ACHIEVE the stability (low energy of the noble gases).
||These elements have filled electron shells
and thus do not react. They are stable (low energy because of how their electrons are arranged. ALL ATOMs react to get filled Shells
The numbers with the dashes below the element symbol tell us the how each atom is arranged.
the key is that WHEN ELECTRONS FILL A SHELL those electrons are stable (LOW ENERGY) and are not going to be removed (oxidized). It only the electrons that farther away from the nucleus, in higher shells that high enough energy to be removed. So in the case of Na (sodium) it becomes +! by losing an electron and becomes stable (releases free energy) to become Na+1.
Na —> Na+1 + 1e– + Free Energy
High energy atom —-> low energy ion
2 – 8 – 1 —-> 2 – 8
What happened here? One electron from the 3rd energy level was lost so that electron arrangement (electron configuration) could become a filled. By losing one the second shell is filled only and that is more stable (low energy) than the having just 1 electron in the 3rd shell. SO Na+ is AS Stable as Ne because the both have the same electron arrangement.
2 – 8 2 – 8
by losing 1 e– naturally occurring
So Na reacts to become Na+ when it bonds!!!!
How would Cl react when it bonds?
1e– + Cl —> Cl-1 + Energy
2 – 8 – 7 2 – 8 – 8
Chlorine is a smaller atom that has a large ability to Gain electrons (get reduced). When it gains an electron it becomes as stable as Ar ( 2 – 8 – 8). Notice it gets stable thus energy is released.
Na + Cl —> NaCl + Energy
unstable unstable stable Na and Cl
loses e– gains e–
Big Atom Small atom
reducing agent oxidizing agent
Form: Thursday NIGHTS HOMEWORK!!!!!!!!
this form is updated and ready for your responses..
You will only have one submission for this form so make it good!
End of Thursday!
1/25 – Friday – period 6 – Academic Study Hall
period 7 –
Collecting Genetics Test –
1 :enzymes and vitamins presentation
2: Complete second worksheet in class.
3: Continue with atomic structure and bonding.
a) stability is based upon completing electron shells
b) Ionic Bonding – transfer of electrons to be stable
c) Covalent Bonding – sharing electrons to be stable
3. Proton motor force from 4 page notes—–> Electron Transport Chain Animation above
How does the high energy electrons Pump H+ into the inter membrane space of the Mitichondrion?
Glucose ———-> Cellular Respiration ———-> O2
high energy electrons low energy electrons
4: Catalase Races – winners posted soon (MONDAY!)
1/26 Friday Homework: – Make sure I have all Packet Labs!!!
1. Study for an energy test – Next Tuesday!
Please see the Energy Test materials posted in Quarter 2!
2: MC Form Tonight on Video below:
End of week 10 and quarter 2 (sort of)…