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Q3 – Week 2 – 19-20

week 2
Week 2/3 – 2/7

2/3 – Monday – period 7/8
1: Mitochondria / HW / Google slides
    a) Evolutionary implications – Genome, 
    b) efficiency/ adaptations
    c) expanding the complexity of eukaryotes
    d) Diagram of mitochondria –
Complete oxidation formula: when you combine all 3 parts of cellular combustion
Complete Cellular Respiration Formula:                         
                                      C6H12O6 (s)       +       6O2       —–>       6CO2(g)        +       6H2O (l)
2: Fast Oxidation: Hydrogen and Oxygen
4: Complete Cell respiration Table/note on colored diagrams
5: Vitamin and Mineral Lesson – 
View Download
Mitochondria Diagram Key p.pdf
View Download
Overview video on the entire Energy/cellular respiration Unit
Complete Cellular Respiration Formula:                         
                                      C6H12O6 (s)       +       6O2       —–>       6CO2(g)        +       6H2O (l)
glucose      –> Electron Carriers (NAD+, FAD) –>  Electron transport System  (Oxygen bonds with H+ to make H2O)
   High Energy                  oxidize glucose                                 high energy electrons used to pump H+ ions against gradient
       Electrons                                                                                      these H+ rush out of membrane giving atp synthase energy
 energy that we harness from glucose (from the food we eat) is due to high energy electrons that exist in C – H bonds.  These electrons are shared equally because the Carbon and the Hydrogen have almost the same attraction for electrons which allows electrons to have the most freedom.  Electrons with the most freedom have the greatest potential energy.  When they are held closer to one or another atom the electrons “feel” the nucleus more thus have less potential energy.  
The “slow” burn of glucose occurs as we take the high energy of the C-H electrons and convert them into lower energy electrons. This is accomplished by slowly taking these electrons away from the glucose in each stage of cellular respiration ( Glycolysis, Pyruvate oxidation, Citric Acid Cycle, Oxidative Phosphorylation) and combining with the final electron acceptor, oxygen and water is made.   In water the electrons are held more tightly or are pulled more to the oxygen (who loves to grab electrons) These electrons are held closer to one of the atoms in a bond and have less freedom leading to a release of energy which is used to make ATP.

Do not forget there is whole host of enzymes that catalyze the many steps needed to slowly grab the high energy electrons.  There are also co-enzymes (vitamins!) that help carry these electrons into electron transport system.  They include NADH (Vitamin – Niacin), FAD (Vitamin – Vitamin B2 – riboflavin).

Do some vitamins give us energy? No but they help get the free energy!!!                                                                                              to create 34 ATP.

Cellular Respiration

Vitamins and Minerals


Oxidation animation:
Oxidation Lab:
Mitochondria Animations:

2/3 Monday – Homework-

1. 2nd submission of the Mitochondria Form!
2. Study for 1 period test of cellular respiration.
        – Look over the last test (Energy Test) and review all cell respiration questions.
        – There will be no vocabulary on this test.
            –  Look over your class notes that we taken!
Today’s Notes:

2/4  – Tuesday – period 7 – Academic Study Hall
                                 period 8
– Study! – the Last 15 minutes we will start the test. Lola will get 15 more minutes.
1: Energy Test – 1 period test only!
2/4  – Tuesday Homework:
1: Please watch 2 videos on the Photosynthesis. Please watch them in the following order:
     – about 12:00 minutes
2:  Then watch the following lecture from MIT:
   -about 17:00 minutes
3:  And Complete the Form below 🙂

Photosynthesis Form 1 1920

End of Tuesday!

2/5 – Wednesday – period 7
                                       period 8
1.  Test 4 Energy Review – Hand Back
2.  Photosynthesis Homework Review – Tuesday night’s Form review.
Tuesday night video review:
Andrew Douch
[thylakoid disk——-> stack of thylakoid disks——-> granum] = light dependent reactions 
[stroma —–>  outside the thylakoid] = light independent reaction 0r Dark Reactions
“we are just using them for their hydrogen..haha…we take the hydrogen off them and chuck the oxygens away.”
12 H2O  —–>  24 H (hydrogen ions/protons) + 24 NADP+  ——-> 24 NADPH——> light dependent reaction                                                     18 ATP produced              ————————————–>  light dependent reaction                                                            (no ATP leftover for anything other than the light dependent reaction
                                              inside thylakoid                                                               ——–> stroma
                    24 hydrogens ripped of water eventually become 6 H2O (12) and 1 C6H12O6 (12) 
                                            6 carbons from 6 CO2 become 1 C6H12O6 (glucose)
                  18 ATP        +       12 H2O (l)     +     CO2 (g)   ———>   6 O2 (g)    +     C6H12O6     +      H2O
           made from sunlight            roots uptake               stomata (pores)                          waste             concentrated energy
                                                           ΔG = ?                         ΔSuniv = ?
 Is energy coupling occurring here?
                                                                        What did he leave out?   (electrons!)
  Graham Walker, PhD (MIT professor)
Cyclic Photophosphorylation – Preceded Respiration – 3.4 BYA
“sunlight kicks an electron up to higher orbital and when it is in a higher orbital it is easily lost”
“chlorophyll absorbs a particular wavelength from sun but this embedded in a multi-protein structure that has a bunch of other molecules that absorb at different wavelengths and then funnel that energy into the one that chlorophyll comes in.”
“When chlorophyll absorbs energy (the electron) goes up to an excited state ..and now is in a higher energy state (father away from the protons in the nucleus) and is more easily removed. “It is so easily removed that it actually becomes a strong reducing agent – (itself gets oxidized but helps other GAIN electrons).
 In this diagram Dr.Walker is diagraming the thermodynamic pathway of the electrons!

High free energy  ——->   Lower free energy
Excited  electrons                            less energetic

During this free fall Free Energy by excited electrons are used to pump H+ into the thylakoid.  This creates an electron gradient (high concentration of  H+ ) which is another form of Free energy that is used to create 18 ATP!


So Free Energy of the Sun ——->  Free Energy of the High Hconcentration ———> ATP 
          (excites electrons)
      So Free Energy of one form is being converted to free energy of another. So what must be released in each step?
And this 18 ATP in Cyclic Photophosporlation is used by the prokaryote cell to drive life sustaining reactions.  The low energy electrons are returned to the chlorophyl.
“there are still bacteria that exist today that still use Cyclic Photophosphorylation”
 “ATP is not enough to take carbon dioxide and make into sugars or carbon compounds.  We need a source of reducing power as well … Remember that CO2 is the most oxidized form of carbon.     


Notice the electrons in double bond of Carbon (C) are being pulled away from the C (carbon) toward the oxygen (O). Because Oxygen is the element that has the one of the greatest attraction for electron (its the reason it is such a small atom) AND this oxygen is BONDED ON BOTH SIDES of the molecule, Carbon “kind of” has its valence electrons removed or lost.  This “kind of” loss is oxidation.
These ancestral organisms used H2S to as a source of reducing power AND NADP+ to gather the reducing power for biosynthesis (making sugars, etc).
                                              H2S   +    NADP+   ———————–>  S  +   NADPH   +  H+
“The key is to get CO2 down to a more reduced form of Carbon”
It was done by using the reducing power of NADPH and the ATP made.
Non- Cyclic Photophosphorylation –  3.0 BYA – (Current Photosynthesis)
In Noncyclic Photophosphorylation the electron  that were excited by chlorophyll are used to generate a proton force in the same way as cyclic BUT these electrons ARE the ones that are the source of reducing power when they combine with NADP+.
Why is it an improvement over the Cyclic?
“it uses the energy of the sun to make ATP (like Cyclic) BUT it also uses energy of the sun to make NADPH!”
“So in other words, this second version gives the cell simply from the energy of the cell everything it needs to take carbon dioxide (CO2) and make it into organic (carbon based compounds).
It gives it the energy to reduce CO2!
The Noncyclic process accomplishes this by using a second photosystem that reenergizes the electrons that were just used to pump H+ into the thylakoid.  Once re-energized by the absorption of energy by the sun ( in the second photosystem, photosystem I) the electron is now at higher energy state that can reduce NADP+. This electron is not returned to Photosystem II.


In this current process, since the electron does return to the original photosystem it must get another electron from another source.  That of course is water. 
3:  Photosynthesis diagram  – Cyclic vs Noncyclic Photo phosphorylation , Diagram 
photosynthesis diagrams.pdf
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Photosynthesis diagram overview.pdf
View Download
1/30 – Wednesday homework:
1.  Please make a second submission on last nights form
2. Use the following video to fill out tonights form:
Classwork Form:

Photosynthesis Form 2 1920 New

End of Wednesday..

2/6 – Thursday-  period 7 – Academic Study Hall
                                    period 8
1: Photosystem II vs Photosystem 1 : Photosynthesis diagram overview.pdf
(really worked)
2: Additive and Negative light theory
3: light demos


This a diagram of the chloroplast. Our Third organelle that we will discuss that eukaryotes can have (nucleus, mitochondria, and now chloroplast).

There are two separate but connected processes, the light reactions, and the dark reactions (that do not need light), which is also referred to the Calvin Cycle.


Origin of life

2/6 – Thursday- homework:  
 We are working with the Light Reactions which includes the Photo Phosphorylation that occurs inside the thylakoid.   Using certain wavelengths of light (colors) of light, electrons are excited to pull protons inside the thylakoid to create a proton motor force that makes ATP and High Energy electrons ( carried by NADP+  used to reduce the carbon that is being reduced in the Calvin Cycle in the the Stroma.
1. Please complete the form based on the diagrams that we have been working on in class.

Photosynthesis Form LIV 1920


End of Thursday..

2/7 -Friday – period 7
                         period 8
Play origin of life videos!
Finish the starch vs. cellulose
1: Additive and Negative light theory/photoelectric effect – photons
2: Sunset demo/prism
3: spectrophotometry activity
4:  Bohr transitions Flash link in presentation – did not get to 
5. Bright line spectrum- did not get to 
Electron configurations and Photosynthesis.pdf
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Electron configurations and Photosynthesis key.pdf
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Photosynthesis diagram overview.pdf
View Download


Today’s Demos:
In the above demo, I am trying to demonstrate that the glow in the dark sheet can only be “charged by light (photons) that have an Energy Level that is High enough (shorter wavelength) that can excite the electrons in the molecules in the sheet.  These electrons move from stable low energy positions or Shells (closer to the nucleus) to positions or Shells that are Higher in Energy and become unstable.  Unstable electrons with high energy leaps..


2/7 -Friday – (weekend) Homework: (4 things!)
1.  Make another submission on your Photosynthesis Form LIII
2: Please make a This and That Worksheet to compare and contrast Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis in a Google Doc that I have shared with you. Please be as complete and thorough as possible.
Check your private google email as I have you all the link  as of 3:15 Friday afternoon.
I have an example of a THIS and THAT Worksheet posted below for contrasting ATOMs and IONs:

Make sure your THIS and THAT is outstanding. 
How can you gauge whether your worksheet is outstanding? If I give you an test next week on comparing cellular respiration and Photosynthesis, and you could use this worksheet on the test, would you add to your work?
I will print and grade this assignment. 
3:  Please watch the lecture: 
AP Biology – Electron configuration and excitation in Photosynthesis 
And Complete the worksheet that was given out in class today which is posted below and review with key.
Electron configurations and Photosynthesis.pdf
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Electron configurations and Photosynthesis key.pdf
View Download
4.  Complete the form below:
To be posted …

IF you need more help with lewis dot diagrams

More complex:
End of week 1!