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Q3 – Week 4 – 20-21

week 4
Week of 3/1 – 3/5 – 

 
*Please REFRESH this Page every time you view!!!
The 4 day – A, B, C, D cycle looks like this:
                                                       Day          7              Period      8
                                                                           
                                       In class:         A         Academic Study               AP BIOLOGY                  
                                   Remote:                       Academic Study                   AP BIOLOGY              
 
          Monday             In class:         B         AP BIOLOGY                   AP BIOLOGY                      
                                                          Remote:                    AP BIOLOGY                 AP BIOLOGY           
 
                                        In class:              C         AP BIOLOGY                   AP BIOLOGY              
                                   Remote:                     AP BIOLOGY                AP BIOLOGY       
 
                                         In class:          D         Academic Study               AP BIOLOGY  
                                   Remote:                     Academic Study             Academic Study     
                 
 
This week’s 5 day Schedule:   I = In person,  R = Remote
                                                                                                                                                                                    
                                             
3/1 –  Monday  –  “B” Day      period 7B, 8B– I   7(B) 8(B,D)  AP BIOLOGY – (double period Lab)
                                                          -period 7B, 8B -R  7(B) 8(B,D)  AP BIOLOGY – REMOTE INSTR
 
 
3/2 – Tuesday – “C” Day          – period 7C, 8C -I     7(C) 8(A,C)  AP BIOLOGY – (double period Lab)
                                                           – period 7C, 8C   7(C) 8(A,C)  AP BIOLOGY – REMOTE INSTR
 
 
3/3 –  Wednesday – “D” Day     – period 7D,8D – I   7(D)  AP BIO ACADEMIC STUDY / 7(B) 8(B,D) AP BIOLOGY
                                                           – period 7D,8D – R  7(D)  REMOTE INS  / 7(B) 8(B,D) AP BIOLOGY REMOTE INSTR
        
 
3/4  – Thursday – “A” Day    – period 7A, 8A –  7(A) AP BIO ACADEMIC STUDY(ASH) / 7(C) 8(A,C) AP BIOLOGY
                                                       –period 7A, 8A -R  7 (A) REMOTE INSTR –  ASH  / 7(C) 8(A,C) 20-21 REMOTE INSTR
 
 
3/5 –  Friday   –  “B” Day       period 7B, 8B– I   7(B) 8(B,D)  AP BIOLOGY – (double period Lab)
                                                          -period 7B, 8B -R  7(B) 8(B,D)  AP BIOLOGY – REMOTE INSTR
 

3/1 –  Monday  –  “B” Day      period 7B, 8B– I   7(B) 8(B,D)  AP BIOLOGY – (double period Lab)
                                                          -period 7B, 8B -R  7(B) 8(B,D)  AP BIOLOGY – REMOTE INSTR
 
The Blue Team is Remote today.
 
Period 7, 8 – 
 
1.  Photosynthesis Homework Review – Tuesday night’s Form review.
Tuesday night video review:
\Andrew Douch
[thylakoid disk——-> stack of thylakoid disks——-> granum] = light dependent reactions 
 
[stroma —–>  outside the thylakoid] = light independent reaction 0r Dark Reactions
 
“we are just using them for their hydrogen..haha…we take the hydrogen off them and chuck the oxygens away.”
12 H2O  —–>  24 H (hydrogen ions/protons) + 24 NADP+  ——-> 24 NADPH——> light dependent reaction                                                     18 ATP produced              ————————————–>  light dependent reaction                                                            (no ATP leftover for anything other than the light dependent reaction
                                              inside thylakoid                                                               ——–> stroma
 
                    24 hydrogens ripped of water eventually become 6 H2O (12) and 1 C6H12O6 (12) 
                                            6 carbons from 6 CO2 become 1 C6H12O6 (glucose)
 
                  18 ATP        +       12 H2O (l)     +     CO2 (g)   ———>   6 O2 (g)    +     C6H12O6     +      H2O
           made from sunlight            roots uptake               stomata (pores)                          waste             concentrated energy
 
                                                           ΔG = ?                         ΔSuniv = ?
 
 Is energy coupling occurring here?
 
                                                                        What did he leave out?   (electrons!)
 
  Graham Walker, PhD (MIT professor)
Cyclic Photophosphorylation – Preceded Respiration – 3.4 BYA
 
“sunlight kicks an electron up to higher orbital and when it is in a higher orbital it is easily lost”
 
“chlorophyll absorbs a particular wavelength from sun but this embedded in a multi-protein structure that has a bunch of other molecules that absorb at different wavelengths and then funnel that energy into the one that chlorophyll comes in.”
 
“When chlorophyll absorbs energy (the electron) goes up to an excited state ..and now is in a higher energy state (father away from the protons in the nucleus) and is more easily removed. “It is so easily removed that it actually becomes a strong reducing agent – (itself gets oxidized but helps other GAIN electrons).
 

 In this diagram Dr.Walker is diagraming the thermodynamic pathway of the electrons!

High free energy  ——->   Lower free energy
Excited  electrons                            less energetic

During this free fall Free Energy by excited electrons are used to pump H+ into the thylakoid.  This creates an electron gradient (high concentration of  H+ ) which is another form of Free energy that is used to create 18 ATP!
  

 

So Free Energy of the Sun ——->  Free Energy of the High Hconcentration ———> ATP 
          (excites electrons)
 
      So Free Energy of one form is being converted to free energy of another. So what must be released in each step?
 
And this 18 ATP in Cyclic Photophosporlation is used by the prokaryote cell to drive life sustaining reactions.  The low energy electrons are returned to the chlorophyl.
 
“there are still bacteria that exist today that still use Cyclic Photophosphorylation”
 “ATP is not enough to take carbon dioxide and make into sugars or carbon compounds.  We need a source of reducing power as well … Remember that CO2 is the most oxidized form of carbon.     

                  

Notice the electrons in double bond of Carbon (C) are being pulled away from the C (carbon) toward the oxygen (O). Because Oxygen is the element that has the one of the greatest attraction for electron (its the reason it is such a small atom) AND this oxygen is BONDED ON BOTH SIDES of the molecule, Carbon “kind of” has its valence electrons removed or lost.  This “kind of” loss is oxidation.
 
These ancestral organisms used H2S to as a source of reducing power AND NADP+ to gather the reducing power for biosynthesis (making sugars, etc).
 
                                              H2S   +    NADP+   ———————–>  S  +   NADPH   +  H+
“The key is to get CO2 down to a more reduced form of Carbon”
 
It was done by using the reducing power of NADPH and the ATP made.
 
 
 
Non- Cyclic Photophosphorylation –  3.0 BYA – (Current Photosynthesis)
 
In Noncyclic Photophosphorylation the electron  that were excited by chlorophyll are used to generate a proton force in the same way as cyclic BUT these electrons ARE the ones that are the source of reducing power when they combine with NADP+.
 
Why is it an improvement over the Cyclic?
 
“it uses the energy of the sun to make ATP (like Cyclic) BUT it also uses energy of the sun to make NADPH!”
 
“So in other words, this second version gives the cell simply from the energy of the cell everything it needs to take carbon dioxide (CO2) and make it into organic (carbon based compounds).
 
It gives it the energy to reduce CO2!
 
The Noncyclic process accomplishes this by using a second photosystem that reenergizes the electrons that were just used to pump H+ into the thylakoid.  Once re-energized by the absorption of energy by the sun ( in the second photosystem, photosystem I) the electron is now at higher energy state that can reduce NADP+. This electron is not returned to Photosystem II.

 

In this current process, since the electron does return to the original photosystem it must get another electron from another source.  That of course is water. 
 
2:  Photosynthesis diagram  – Cyclic vs Noncyclic Photo phosphorylation , Diagram 
photosynthesis diagrams.pdf
View Download
 
Photosynthesis diagram overview.pdf
View Download
Photosythesis diagram worksheet 2.pdf
View Download
3/1 –  Monday  –  “B” Day  Homework:
1.  Please make a second submission on this weekends form.
2. Use the following video to fill out tonights form:
Classwork Form:

Photosynthesis Form 2 2021

End of Monday..

3/2 – Tuesday – “C” Day          – period 7C, 8C -I     7(C) 8(A,C)  AP BIOLOGY – (double period Lab)
                                                         – period 7C, 8C   7(C) 8(A,C)  AP BIOLOGY – REMOTE INSTR
 
The Red team is REMOTE Today!
 
Period 7,8 – 
 
 
                                                                                                                 
 

 

                                      Photosynthesis                                                       Cellular Respiration
 
1: Photosystem II vs Photosystem 1 : Photosynthesis diagram overview.pdf
(really worked)
 
2. Calvin Cycle reviewed again
3: Additive and Negative light theory
4: light demos

 

This a diagram of the chloroplast. Our Third organelle that we will discuss that eukaryotes can have (nucleus, mitochondria, and now chloroplast).

There are two separate but connected processes, the light reactions, and the dark reactions (that do not need light), which is also referred to the Calvin Cycle.

 

Atomic Structure 2 – Bohr emission spectroscopy

Newtons light stick Wheel:
 
 

 

 

 

3/2 – Tuesday – “C” Day – Homework – 
 We are working with the Light Reactions which includes the Photo Phosphorylation that occurs inside the thylakoid.   Using certain wavelengths of light (colors) of light, electrons are excited to pull protons inside the thylakoid to create a proton motor force that makes ATP and High Energy electrons ( carried by NADP+  used to reduce the carbon that is being reduced in the Calvin Cycle in the the Stroma.
 
1. Please make another submission to last nights form.
 
2. Please complete the form based on the diagrams that we have been working on in class.
 
You have 3 graded responses to this form as it is on auto-reply.

Photosynthesis Form 3

End of Tuesday…

3/3 –  Wednesday – “D” Day     – period 7D,8D – I   7(D)  AP BIO ACADEMIC STUDY / 7(B) 8(B,D) AP BIOLOGY
                                                           – period 7D,8D – R  7(D)  REMOTE INS  / 7(B) 8(B,D) AP BIOLOGY REMOTE INSTR
        
The Red Team is remote today.
 
Starch vs. Cellulose – both are made from G3p’s
                             
1: Additive and Negative light theory/photoelectric effect – photons
2: Sunset demo/prism
3: spectrophotometry activity
 
4:  Bohr transitions Flash link in presentation – 
 
5. Bright line spectrum-
Electron configurations and Photosynthesis.pdf
View Download
Electron configurations and Photosynthesis key.pdf
View Download
Photosynthesis diagram overview.pdf
View Download

Photosynthesis

                                
Today’s Demos:
In the above demo, I am trying to demonstrate that the glow in the dark sheet can only be “charged by light (photons) that have an Energy Level that is High enough (shorter wavelength) that can excite the electrons in the molecules in the sheet.  These electrons move from stable low energy positions or Shells (closer to the nucleus) to positions or Shells that are Higher in Energy and become unstable.  Unstable electrons with high energy leaps..
3/3 –  Wednesday Homework:
1:  Make another submission from Photosynthesis form 2.
2:  Please watch the lecture: 
AP Biology – Electron configuration and excitation in Photosynthesis 
 
And Complete the worksheet that was given out in class today which is posted below and review with key.
 
Electron configurations and Photosynthesis.pdf
View Download
Electron configurations and Photosynthesis key.pdf
View Download
..

IF you need more help with lewis dot diagrams

 
Simple:
 
More complex:

End of Wednesday..


3/4  – Thursday – “A” Day    – period 7A, 8A –  7(A) AP BIO ACADEMIC STUDY(ASH) / 7(C) 8(A,C) AP BIOLOGY
                                                       –period 7A, 8A -R  7 (A) REMOTE INSTR –  ASH  / 7(C) 8(A,C) 20-21 REMOTE INSTR
 
 
The Red Team is remote today.
 
Period 7, 8:

1.  electron configuration review based on energy levels:
 
       Electrons that are core are closer to the nucleus = STABLE = low energy shells
            These electrons “feel” the nucleus more because they ARE CLOSER to the positive protons in the nucleus that attract the oppositely charged negative electrons. (Like charges repel).
 
        Electrons that are valence are farther away from nucleus = Unstable = high energy shell
These electrons “feel” the nucleus less  because they ARE FARTHER to the positive protons in the nucleus that attract the oppositely charged negative electrons. (Like charges repel).
Electron configurations and Photosynthesis.pdf
View Download
Electron configurations and Photosynthesis key.pdf
View Download
2. photo electric effect – Light as a particle = photon = discreet amount of energy.
 
3: spectrophotometry activity – The spectrophotometer shoots a white light (full spectrum of all photons) through the sample in the cuvette. The detector measures what is missing. Missing photons are absorbed (electrons transition away from the nucleus) by the pigment and the amount of missing photons or absorbed photons is measured by the height of the peak.
 
 
Electron Transitions flash animation:
 
3. bright line Spectrum
4. Absorption spectrum
 
Yellow pigments = Blue/violet photons are absorbed = missing
                                                         Violet/Indigo/Blue photons absorbed = peaks
 
BLUE Pigments = red and yellow are absorbed = missing
 

                                                                                      Mostly yellow and red photons absorbed = peaks

 
green pigments = Blue and red photons are absorbed = missing

                                                          Blue and Red photons absorbed = peaks

                                                                            Why are plants mostly green?
 
3/4  – Thursday – “A” Day Homework:
 
1. Please view and read through the presentation below (slides 24 – till the end).
2. Watch the 2 video’s on the early atmosphere of the earth
3. Complete the True and False form on the presentation

Light and Chlorophyll

                     

 

Tonight’s Form:  You have a total of three submissions to this form.

Light and the Plant FUN TF FORM 2021

End of Thursday..

3/5 –  Friday   –  “B” Day       period 7B, 8B– I   7(B) 8(B,D)  AP BIOLOGY – (double period Lab)
                                                      -period 7B, 8B -R  7(B) 8(B,D)  AP BIOLOGY – REMOTE INSTR
 
We learned that elements like to ABSORB photons of light (energy) when electrons get excited and move away from the nucleus. They are now unstable and return to their low energy positions closer to the positive nucleus and give off the same light that they absorbed.
 
We looked ay bright line spectra from several elements and compounds. In particular we looked at hydrogens bright line spectrum ti identify its famous red line that represents an electron returning to the 2nd shell from the 3rd.  We used diffracting lens to see the bright lines. 
 
Bright Line Demo – Positive Theory – electrons transitioning toward the nucleus:
Absorption  Demo – Negative Theory – electrons transitioning away from nucleus:
 
1:  Bohr transitions Flash link in presentation
 
2: Bright line Spectrum Demo
 
3. Glow in the dark TEST demo
 
4.  Absorption spectrum Demo
 
5. Spectrophotometer activity
 
3/5 –  Friday   –  “B” Day Homework:
1: Complete the first Ecology Form – 
 
Please use page 1171 in your text to compete these questions. You will need to read these parts of this chapter to answer correctly.
 
Ecology Form 1:
We will investigate the concepts that include the flow of energy through all organisms in an ecosystem. This particular form is based population ecology BUT it all stems from ENERGY AVAILABLE for life to exist in a area.  Keep that idea close to your vest when you do ecology.
 

Ecology Form 1 – 2021

 

 

End of week 4

 
 
 

For next week: