Week of 3/23 – 3/27 – Please refresh every time you open!
Monday – 3/23 – We will meet at 1:30 today!
Link to the recording of today’s meeting:
1. Bag Plants – Transpiration Lab – Day 0
2. Lab Design/Controls
Please Begin the “slide – up” of the Transpiration Lab. I have sent everyone a link to a blank google slide or presentation.
Please complete today:
1: the Title Page –
2: The Background-
3: The Hypothesis-
4. The materials and procedure please.
4: Cell Cycle – fluctuations – (internal signals vs external fluctuation signals)
a) protein kinases for cell cycle – Cdk’s (cyclin dependant Kinases) – constant
b) Cyclin – fluctuating proteins that bind to Cdk’s —–> MPF
c) Cdk’s —–> MPF = Maturation Promoting factor
a) growth factors (100 known in animals) – cell to cell signaling
example: PDGF (platelet driven growth factor ) – Fibroblasts have receptors
for PDFF to that will cause a transduction for the fibroblasts to divide.
Fibroblasts – connective tissue that produces collagen (secondary protein)
b) nutrients – without some nutrients cell will not undergo mitosis
3/ 23 – Monday Homework:
1: Please view the two tutorials below A & B
2: Take Notes from these 2 videos and add them to the notes you took on the embryonic lecture.
3: Please complete the form below using your textbook and or the notes:
Immune System Form 2:
Immune System Form 2 1920
Tuesday – 3/24 – 1:00 Meeting Today
Link to today’s recorded lecture:
1. Reviewing the Transpiration Lab set-up
2. Day 1 data gathering:
3. Notes – on the immune system – non – adaptive (innate) vs. adaptive
immune system review – What connects innate to adaptive??
Note taking continues
size of animal = metabolism = Surface to Volume ratio.
checking for health of cells – MHC – I
inflammatory response, fever,
Innate vs Adaptive
1st Response Secondary Response
leukocytes —–Professional antigen Presenting Cell—————> Lymphocytes
3/24 – Tuesday HW:
1: Please complete Immune system packet pages 3 – 7 and review with the key.
Wednesday – 3/25 – Meeting at 1:00
Link to today’s recorded meeting:
1.Transpiration Lab – Day 2 data collection.
2. Adaptive Immune system Note- taking
3. Review of Immune form
Immune System Presentation:
Partial Lecture on Immune System – todays lecture compressed.
3/25 – Wednesday Homework:
Transpiration Lab continues!
1. Please start studying for your next test by reviewing these following vocabulary words:
Cell Communication Test vocabulary
Lymphatic system –
T – Cell
B – Cell
primary immune response
secondary immune response
cytotoxic T cells
Innate immune system
Adaptive immune system
Cell mediated response
End of Wednesday ..
Thursday – 3/26 – We will not meet today! 🙁
STAY THE COURSE!!! WE ARE ALMOST done with the entire course!!
1. Transpiration Day 3 data collection.
2. PLEASE WATCH today’s lectures below:
Secondary response, Passive immunity, Blood typing, Vaccinations
Lecture (part 1) : Not one of my best dressed days!
GET Vaccinated!!! There are parents out there who are putting their children at risk for diseases that we have DEFEATED because of the AWFUL Redacted study above!
3/26 – Thursday homework:
1. Transpiration Lab!
2: Please read the Retracted autism vaccination study posted above and identify the poor aspects of this investigation.
3: Complete the multiple choice form:
3/27 – Friday – We will have a meeting today at 1:00
Link to today’s recorded meeting:
1. Review last nights form.
2. Transpiration Lab – day 4 – complete final data collection/errors –
3. Nervous system intro – propagation of an action potential.
3/27 – Friday – Weekend homework.
1. Complete the “slide- ups” of the Transpiration lab – last lab! 🙁
Data: Table – No error bars on this one
2. Read my notes below – ( I know that I said not to today but please read anyway!)
3. Please use your textbook (pages 1048 – 1054) to answer the following form:
Action Potential Notes:
a) The sodium/potassium pump, along with many permanent open K+ channel proteins and the lower numbered of permanent open Na+ channel proteins create the resting potential. The electrical potential counterbalances chemical gradients which maintains the resting potential that is about -60 millivolts. This negative charged intracellular creates the high potential of charge that will create the voltage to push an electrical signal through the nerve cell.
b) We diagramed how the transmembrane proteins that are specific for K+ and Na+ differ in the dendritic area to detect stimuli and how voltage gated channel proteins appear starting at the axon hillock. The increase in positive ions enter the cell body during stimulus at the dendritic end of the neuron and IF that “graded potential” has large enough (exceeds the threshold) depolarization (increase of positive charge inside of the neuron) an action potential occurs (from Na+ voltage gated channel proteins) that begins at the Axon Hillock and extends through the entire axon to the terminal end. The positive ions that flow in from gated Na+ channels when a neuron is stimulated at its dendrites must produce a depolarizing effect that is enough to reach the axon hillock and open the gated Na+ channels. If the stimulus does not depolarize the extra cellular cell body enough then the neuron does not produce an action potential. This called an all or none response.
c) The signal moves in one way because the voltage gated protein channel open due to a threshold voltage that is met that denatures the protein in a way that opens the channel BUT when that voltage gets too positive it denatures further to a point where the Na+ voltage gate closes very fast. This quickly opening and then quickly closing voltage gated protein prevents a backflow and keeps the action potentail moving forward in one direction from the dendrites through the axon to the terminal end.
Now once action potential starts from the opening of the gated voltage Na+ channels the Na+ FLOWS in quickly because of the concentration gradient created by the Na/K pump AND due to the electrical potentail created (negative charge that is inside the nerve. This is the electrical pulse!
The Na+ channels open fast and close fast but gated K+ open slower and close slower. K+ voltage protein channels are made of different amino acids and thus require a greater depolarization to create a allosteric change in folded protein that will open pores for K+ to flow out!
Remember that as Na+ flows in, the charge of the inside of the nerve becomes less negative and this allows K+ to leave much easier. K+ leaves through the permanent open channel proteins BUT voltage gated proteins that are at the axon hillock and beyond will open to speed up the loss of K+ out of the cell which helps the inside of the nerve to regain the resting potential. The Na needs to pumped out by the Na/K pump while the K+ is pumped back in. This occurs in the refractory period.
Notice in the diagram above how the action potential moves forward and how the nerve regains “resting potential ” to get ready for another action potential signal.
All of this is due to the different selective permeability of the transmembrane proteins, the sodium/potassium pump and Dissolved ions in the water environment or organisms.
We need dissolved ions (called electrolytes because they help conduct electricity in water) to propagate action potentials OR in simpler terms Are Needed to make our nervous system work!