Week of 3/30 – 4/3
4/1 – Monday – We will meet today at 12:30.
Link to today’s recorded meeting:
1. Painted lady – calculations lab – Energy Dynamics Lab – Calculating Data *Not this year
1. Please download and. print this before today’s class:
2: Neurons / Stimulus Response / Resting Potential / Action Potential
3: -took notes on action potential using diagram:
a) The sodium/potassium pump, along with many permanent open K+ channel proteins and the lower numbered of permanent open Na+ channel proteins create the resting potential. The electrical potential counterbalances chemical gradients which maintains the resting potential that is about -60 millivolts. This negative charged intracellular creates the high potential of charge that will create the voltage to push an electrical signal through the nerve cell.
b) We diagramed how the transmembrane proteins that are specific for K+ and Na+ differ in the dendritic area to detect stimuli and how voltage gated channel proteins appear starting at the axon hillock. The increase in positive ions enter the cell body during stimulus at the dendritic end of the neuron and IF that “graded potential” has large enough (exceeds the threshold) depolarization (increase of positive charge inside of the neuron) an action potential occurs (from Na+ voltage gated channel proteins) that begins at the Axon Hillock and extends through the entire axon to the terminal end. The positive ions that flow in from gated Na+ channels when a neuron is stimulated at its dendrites must produce a depolarizing effect that is enough to reach the axon hillock and open the gated Na+ channels. If the stimulus does not depolarize the extra cellular cell body enough then the neuron does not produce an action potential. This called an all or none response.
c) The signal moves in one way because the voltage gated protein channel open due to a threshold voltage that is met that denatures the protein in a way that opens the channel BUT when that voltage gets too positive it denatures further to a point where the Na+ voltage gate closes very fast. This quickly opening and then quickly closing voltage gated protein prevents a backflow and keeps the action potentail moving forward in one direction from the dendrites through the axon to the terminal end.
Now once action potential starts from the opening of the gated voltage Na+ channels the Na+ FLOWS in quickly because of the concentration gradient created by the Na/K pump AND due to the electrical potentail created (negative charge that is inside the nerve. This is the electrical pulse!
The Na+ channels open fast and close fast but gated K+ open slower and close slower. K+ voltage protein channels are made of different amino acids and thus require a greater depolarization to create a allosteric change in folded protein that will open pores for K+ to flow out!
Remember that as Na+ flows in, the charge of the inside of the nerve becomes less negative and this allows K+ to leave much easier. K+ leaves through the permanent open channel proteins BUT voltage gated proteins that are at the axon hillock and beyond will open to speed up the loss of K+ out of the cell which helps the inside of the nerve to regain the resting potential. The Na needs to pumped out by the Na/K pump while the K+ is pumped back in. This occurs in the refractory period.
Notice in the diagram above how the action potential moves forward and how the nerve regains “resting potential ” to get ready for another action potential signal.
All of this is due to the different selective permeability of the transmembrane proteins, the sodium/potassium pump and Dissolved ions in the water environment or organisms.
We need dissolved ions (called electrolytes because they help conduct electricity in water) to propagate action potentials OR in simpler terms Are Needed to make our nervous system work!
3/30 – Monday –Homework:
1: Please complete questions 1 – 20 in the Neuron Structure Packet.
2: Review with the key.
3. Please make another submission to the Neuron form above as I will grade and send out the grades for the first submission. For those that did the Neuron Packet, please complete the Neuron form with 2 submissions tonight. If you have a 100 on the first try you are golden!
3/31 – Tuesday – We will meet today at 12:30.
Complete the note taking by review the parts of the graph.
link to today’s recorded meeting:
1: Conductivity Demo – Free moving charges create an electrical potential (Voltage!)
We saw that an electrical conductivity requires Free Moving Charges. These free moving charged particles are electrons in metals but in solutions like biological organisms need free moving charge ions that come from dissolved salts.
The Jennifer Strange Story:
2: Reflex acs/ Motor units/ explanation of moving charge as electrical energy/epilepsy and mutations of voltage channels.
3: Myelin Sheaths – Schwann Cells – How it increases speed of signal for small diameter axons that we ha
4: Motor Neuron, Neuromuscular Junction, skeletal muscle
Myelin Sheaths – Schwann Cells :
Famous Boyfriend and Famous Girlfriend- How water makes ions free! When they move they can conduct or propagate a potential.
3/31 – Tuesday Homework:
1: Please use the video’s below to complete the form.
End of Tuesday..
4/1 – Wednesday – We will meet today at 12:30 to finish this course!
Link to today’s recorded Meeting:
1: Neurotransmitters/ reflex arcs/Motor Neuron, Neuromuscular Junction, skeletal muscle: Animal behaviors
Completed the Course!
The AP Biology course has been completed! Well not quite. We have to practice!
4/1 – Wednesday – The last homework assignment of the year!
Please do not do this!
Please watch the 1st video and takes notes on the different parts of the brain and its function. Do this on separate piece of paper.
4/2 – Thursday – We will meet today at 12:30.
We will practice Multiple Choice Questions Today. Now even though your AP test will only have 2 free response questions this year, reviewing multiple choice questions will help you review the entire year!
Part 1 – 63 Multiple choice & 6 Grid – In math questions –
Pace: 90 minutes / 69 = 1.3 minutes per question
1. Start Practice Test 1 – Multiple Choice – Counts as Test Grade or pass/fail
Completed 60 minutes out of 90 = 30 minutes left
60 minutes x 1 question / 1.30 minutes = 46 questions should be completed
4/2 – Thursday Homework:
1 Please complete the practice MC test with the math problems on a separate piece of paper.
2. Put your answers into the Form (in the Review Page in 4th quarter). The form will be on auto- reply. You may being reviewing your incorrect answers with me using the Video (practice test 1 )posted in the same page.
4/3 – Friday – We will meet at 12:30 today! – MAY 18th at 2:00 pm is your new AP Date!
This should have been completed yesterday some time.
1. Completed with Practice Test 1 !
2. Entered answers in answer key form.
3. Received answers in email and maybe began reviewing with my video.
4/3 – Friday – Weekend Homework –
This is the most important!
1. Please Review all of the your incorrect answers from Practice Test 1. Please view the statistics posted in the AP Review Page from Quarter 4. I should have them up today.
Look to see if the questions you got incorrect are the same as most of the class. If not you need to get going on your review.
2. If you have completely finished reviewing Practice Test 1 then please begin with 2019 part free response questions:
2019 – Part 2 practice – It will be counted as a quiz grade.
Complete the Part 2 section of last years test (2019). Pretend that you have just sat for 90 minutes finishing the multiple choice section of the test. You will be given a 10 minute break and then Part 2 (Free Response Section Begins). Please do all of this on the shared google doc that I emailed you today..
Multiple choice = 50% of the test
Free Response = 50% of the test
Question 1: 10 points
Question 2: 10 points
Question 3: 4 points
Question 4: 4 points
Question 5: 4 points
Question 6: 3 points
Question 7: 3 points
Question 8: 3 points
Now you will need to write or upload images of your work in the shared google doc that I will send you today for the part 2 section.
You will not have any space to answer the questions in between the questions. Make sure you label appropriately on your lined paper!!
Example: Question 1:
a) (i) Your work
(ii) Your silly work
Do not make it hard for the AP reader to FIND your answer and do not make it hard for them to Read Your answers (make it legible!!)
a) This section is a timed section and will be 90 minutes long BUT I DO NOT want you to time yourself. Please go through this methodically. Answer every question no matter how long it takes to complete the entire 8 questions.
THERE ARE NO OMISSIONS! WE HAVE COMPLETED THE COURSE!
b) Once you complete this part 2 section please review to see how many points your earned for each question WITH the AP Central Key then Review with my Key to understand how complete each question. I wrote my key days after the AP questions were released last year.
These materials are not secured:
2019 Free Response Questions:
AP Central Key:
2019 AP Biology Free Response Solutions – College Board.pdf
2019 AP Biology Free Response – Mr. grodski solutions p.pdf
end of quarter 3!