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Archive week 1 – 20-21

Week of 9/8 – 9/11

 
Grading, Reflection, Assessment, and Feedback
Things I have learned form 8 years of distance/hybrid teaching:
 
                              1. Design – surgical design with your teaching voice – 
                        2. Assessment (online)
                        3. Feedback – immediate
                        4. Connectivity – teacher access
 
    These four constructs enabled me to Have incredible Educational Momentum in and out the class.
 
Quarter Grade:  20% average of all Quizzes or Homework assignments (Forms)
                                 30% average of all Labs
                                 50% average of all Tests
 
 
*Please Refresh EVERY TIME you visit as I update and make constant changes to these classroom pages.
 

Introduction:

AP chemistry is notoriously one of the most challenging High School courses that is offered. Most High Schools only allow Juniors and Seniors with Honors Chemistry already taken.  Given the fact that most of my students are sophomores that have not had Regents Chemistry yet,  increases the difficulty.  Given the current pandemic and the remote instruction days that we will have, only increases weight of this course.  
 
I say this to you because YOU MUST BE ALL IN to achieve in this class.  There are only about 15,000 sophomores who take this test out of the 150,000 students who take AP Chemistry word-wide.  You have an amazing opportunity to distance yourself from other college applicants in your graduating class who do not take this course. For those that are Juniors or Seniors you have the same opportunity.  
 
Here is the AP Data from last years test ( which was online and a shortened version of the test):
 
Now you can see that 74.1 % of my students achieved an AP of a 3 or better while the rest of the world (it is an international test) only had 55.9 % of the students get a 3 or higher on the test.   Everyone who signs up for AP Chemistry is an above average student by far so think about this.  Out of a self-selected group that compromises very intelligent students (AP Chem students) only 55.9 % earned a 3 or better on the AP test.  Opportunity to distance yourself! Most of my students are 10th graders so you we did really well as compared to the mostly 11th and 12 graders to take this course internationally.
 
55.9% of 146,957 students = 88,027 students who got a 3 or higher on the AP Chemistry Test
 
There about 2 million applicants to US colleges and Universities thus
 
88,027/2,000,000 = only 4.4% of all applicants have accomplished this feat.
Of course my goal is always 100% of the class achieves a 3 or better and I have had many years that I had 100% but that depends IF YOU ARE ALL IN!   Everyone of my students who was ALL IN did get a 3 or better this year.  Everyone who was NOT ALL IN did not earn a 3 or better.  
 
So my message is clear.  Take this course and be dedicated to it!  Do not try to “fit this in” to your schedule.
Be one of the very few who takes this course and even the very fewer who exceed at it!
 
Those that were dedicated to this task finished the Summer Institute regardless of how uncomfortable they were in the process (which is normal).  Those that did not get to the finish line may not be in the right class.
 
Now grades and AP tests are not my only focus here and of course my goal is to prepare you for the AP so that you can earn a 3 or better.  My goal is to open up a world around you through your understanding of chemistry and how it was developed through history.  My goal is for you to understand yourself better through my course.  My goal is to give you the possible ability to love chemistry or at least appreciate it and science in general.  All it took for me was one teacher and one science class to change my life. 
 
I will try to do the same for you and it begins and ends with my class website. Everything will be posted here including class worksheets, keys, homework, notes, video lectures and video tutorials, and labs.
 
If you ever have a question please email me or text through REMIND (which you should have already signed up for in the summer).
 
Email:  grodskib@whbschools.org                   Remind: Link to sign-up to Remind 
In my opening letter to you in the summer institute I said lets enjoy the fall.  That was because I asked a lot of you this summer.  We will enjoy the fall because of all the hard work many of you put in to establish or begin the process of learning many chemistry concepts.   I will begin the year where you left off in Redox and start connecting all the individual units together in the process so you can start to see the beauty in this topic.  Another goal of mine is to connect the 1st day of school to the last day and every day in between. EVERYTHING CONNECTS!!
 
Lets Go!
Schedule:
 
This year is a little different than the past for obvious reasons so please pay particular to the posts for your particular section:
 
BECAUSE OF LAB SCIENCE CLASS WILL EMPLOY AN “A,B,C,D” SYSTEM.  THIS IS A BIT CONFUSING BUT TO LIMIT THE CONFUSION I HAVE ASSIGNED A COLOR CODE TO FOLLOW FROM YOUR FIRST DAY’S SCHEDULE.
 
On the first day your schedule you will determine your class code to follow the rest of this year:
 
BLUE  = 2(A,C) 3(A)  AP CHEMISTRY                   /     2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
RED    = 2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION       /     2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
 
ORANGE = 3(C) 4(A,C) AP CHEMISTRY               /    3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
GREEN    = 3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION  /   3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
 
R = REMOTE INSTRUCTION
I  = IN SCHOOL INSTRUCTION
 
The 4 day – A, B, C, D cycle looks like this:
                                                       Day                               Period
                                                                           2                       3                       4       
                
                                    In class:         A               Lab                   Lab             Single Class
                                   Remote:                           Lab                   Lab              Single Class
 
                                         In class:         B         Single Class        LAB                   LAB
                                                          Remote:                     Single Class        LAB                   LAB
 
                                                 In class:              C         Single Class        LAB                    LAB
                                   Remote:                     Single Class        LAB                    LAB
 
                                   In class:          D               Lab                   Lab             Single Class
                                   Remote:                           Lab                   Lab              Single Class
                 
 
Example 4 day Schedule:
 
9/  –  Tuesday  “A” Day – period 2,3 (Lab) –     2(A,C) 3(A)  AP CHEMISTRY
                                                –period 2,3 (Lab) –  R   2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
                                                     -period 4 – I   3(C) 4(A,C) AP CHEMISTRY 
                                                     -period 4 – R  3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
9/  –  Wednesday – “B” Day  period 2,  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                       – period 2, –  R   2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
                                                     -period 3,4 (LAB) – I   3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                     -period 3,4 (LAB) – R  3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
9/  – Thursday- “C” Day – period 2, –  I    2(A,C) 3(A)  AP CHEMISTRY
                                                     –period 2, –  R   2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
                
                                                      -period 3,4 (LAB) – I.  3(C) 4(A,C) AP CHEMISTRY 
                                                      -period 3,4 (LAB) – R  3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
9/ – Friday – “D” Day – period 2,3 (Lab)  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                              – period 2,3 (Lab) –  R  2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
  
                                                      -period 4 – I  3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                      -period 4 – R 3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
Extra Help Schedule:
 

Here is the extra help schedule for the school year. Extra help will take place virtually from 2:20-3:05 according to the following  schedule. I will have extra help everyday including Friday and you are free to join in the zoom session links IF you do not need to be present for other classes. This means that you cannot be in my extra help unless on a Tuesday UNESS YOU DO NOT NEED math, social studies, music, or Phys. Ed extra help.

Monday & Thursday

English

Science

LOTE

Art/Bus/Tech

Tuesday & Wednesday

Math

Social Studies

Music

Phys. Ed.

 
Homework Prior to 9/8:
 
1. Please have hard copies of your labs that you competed this summer and the redox  
     module. I will collect on your first in person day. If can you can scan them and email      them to me that would be a bonus!
 
2.  Please log into your AP Central Account (or create one) and join the AP Chemistry class (AP Classroom). The AP coordinator at our school must use those online accounts to order AP tests in the spring. IF you do not log in or create an account you risk not having an AP test to take in the spring (regardless if you paid for it or not).
The Join codes per class are posted below.
 
3. Also make sure you have a private gmail account that you should of established this summer.  School gmail account do not allow any incoming mail that is not from the school server.  That means you will not get keys or results from forms if you use the school email account.
 
4.  Complete the Introduction  Form – this will count as your first Quiz Grade.
      It will cover all of the introductory information given above.
 

Introduction Form

 
 
Please follow the instructions with this link below to join the Ap Classroom:
 
                 Period 2 Class (2(A,C) 3(A)  AP CHEMISTRY &  2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY ) Join code:
Period 4 Class (3(C) 4(A,C) AP CHEMISTRY  &  3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY ) Join code:
 
 

THIS IS THE BEGINNING OF EVERYTHING!
“The first day of class should connect to the last day and every day in between!”
 
Full Remote students follow Remote Instruction Day Lessons Everyday!
 
9/8 –  Tuesday  “A” Day – period 2,3 (Lab) –     2(A,C) 3(A)  AP CHEMISTRY
                                                –period 2,3 (Lab) –  R   2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
Main focus: To interconnect all the concepts learned this summer (and last year) for the beginning of the Electrochemistry Unit.
remote students please click on the link to move to the Week One Remote lesson page for 9/8
 
2(A,C) 3(A)  AP CHEMISTRY: I will use the notes from the Remote Instruction page for the discussion
 
1: Check AP Classroom! and Pre- school homework.
 
:Collect Summer Assignment redox packet – and Labs by Institute students
 
3 :assign seating 😉 , class webpage basics – 
 
4. Summer Institute/ Assignment Lesson Connections Lesson – (major points below)
 
  a)Biology = proteins
  Chemistry = electrons and Coulombs Law = Everything chemistry is Coulombs Law!
 
   b) Demos:  Book, Whoosh bottle = Combustion = Live demos for In person- 
   
   c) cellular respiration 
   
   d)   began discussion of Redox, Big atoms  (metals) vs. Small atoms (nonmetals) and their varying ability to  
        lose (oxidize) or gain (reduce) electrons.
 
   e) Coulombs Law: introduction = explains why oxygen is a good oxidizer!!!
         
   
5: book and Whoosh bottle  demonstrations- Combustion (redox reactions)
    
 
LAB 1 – Voltaic Cell.pdf
View Download                                
 
9/8 –  Tuesday  “A” Day   -period 4 – I   3(C) 4(A,C) AP CHEMISTRY 
                                                 -period 4 – R  3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
period 4 – R  3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION:  Summer Institute and Summer Assignment Connections Lesson 
Remote students please click on the link above to move to the Week One Remote lesson page for 9/8.
You will not be completing the voltaic lab activity.
                                           
 -period 4 – I (single)  3(C) 4(A,C) AP CHEMISTRY – 
I will use the notes from the Remote Instruction page for today’s discussion.
The bullet points of this discussion are the same as posted above for 2(A,C) 3(A)  AP CHEMISTRY
Live demos will be omitted.
 
                                                 
9/8 –  Tuesday  “A” Day Homework:  Homework is the same for all classes
 
1. Personal History Form  Due Tomorrow – Posted below – Please fill it out with best of your ability
 
 
2.  Connections Homework form:  Due Tomorrow :   – Posted below 
 
3 Lab Safety Lesson–  (this is due Friday 9/11 )Use the Lab safety contract pdf that is posted below to complete this activity.
 
Grodski Safety Contract AP – 2013.pdf
View Download
 
In this activity, you will write the safety rule (just one sentence) ,its number from the safety contract (that I gave you and is posted below),  AND WHERE IN THE VIDEO (: timecode) that is demonstrated in four safety videos.  You need 10 different safety rules and you must use 4 out of the 6 videos. This means if you find 7 in the first video you will need 1 each from the three others to successfully complete the activity.  There are many other combinations but you must use 4 videos and you must have 10 different Safety rules written total.
 
Let me restate: You must find 10 unique safety rules throughout the four of the six videos of your choosing. 
YOU MUST ALSO IDENTIFY BY TIMECODE WHERE IN THE VIDEO THE SAFETY RULE IS BEING 
DEMONSTRATED, DISCUSSED, OR INFERRED.
 
Example of a COMPLETE answer: 1: Jefferson High VIDEO – #45. Examine glassware before each use. (3:23)
I  know what #’s each video covers and where thus will grade your work based on this accuracy.
 
The video playlist is posted above the lab safety form for your convenience.
 
Personal History Sheet:
 

AP Chemistry 20/21 Personal History Form

 

Connections Form:  (REMOTE Students – you did this as classwork)
 

Summer Institute and Summer Assignment Connections Form 20/21

Safety Video Playlist – There are six videos in this playlist (which is also available in the youtube channel).  You must choose 4 of the six videos in the playlist below.  To select the video from the playlist click on word icon on the upper left corner  to toggle between the list and the video 
selected. 
 
As you may have figured it might be easier to write you responses in a word doc then cut and paste 
it into the form when you are done. This way you have a record which might come useful if there is a issue with submitting.
 

AP Chemistry – Safety Form 20-21

 

Extra help ZOOM session Link on tonights form:
 
 

End of Tuesday..


9/9 –  Wednesday – “B” Day  period 2,  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                       – period 2, –  R   2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
– period 2, –  R   2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION – Please go to the Remote Instruction Page
 period 2,  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY – 
 
1:Collect Summer Assignment redox packet – and Labs by Institute students
2.  AP Classroom
3. View the NaCl synthesis (redox) reaction:
     Molecular and Ionic compounds/half reactions/ STABILITY/ Mr. Stable/ Spontaneity
 
4.  Whoosh bottle/book demo
 
Mr. Unstable:
5.  Started Daniell cell Note taking (Blue Team only today)
 
    A: Parts of Voltaic Cell; Redox half reactions; Salt Bridge, flow of ions, flow of electrons
        Voltage vs Amperage. Derivation of Energy and Voltage.
        Spontaneity – Directionality of chemical reactions – based on Gibbs Free Energy
       LeChatelier’s Principle as applied to Voltaic Cells
 
    B: Reduction potentials = Overall best predictor and measure of the ability to oxidize or reduce.
         Determination of net potentials
 

Daniell Cell Lecture Notes

 
                                                    -period 3,4 (LAB) – I   3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                    -period 3,4 (LAB) – R  3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
 -period 3,4 (LAB) – R  3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION – Please go the the Remote Instruction Page – week 1 (9/8).
  -period 3,4 (LAB) – I   3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY – 
 
1:Collect Summer Assignment redox packet – and Labs by Institute students
 
2. AP classroom
3. View the NaCl synthesis (redox) reaction:
     Molecular and Ionic compounds/half reactions/ STABILITY/ Mr. Stable/ Spontaneity
 
4.  Whoosh bottle/book demo
 
5.  Daniell cell Note taking (Did Not Finish –)
 
    A: Parts of Voltaic Cell; Redox half reactions; Salt Bridge, flow of ions, flow of electrons
        Voltage vs Amperage. Derivation of Energy and Voltage.
        Spontaneity – Directionality of chemical reactions – based on Gibbs Free Energy
       LeChatelier’s Principle as applied to Voltaic Cells
 
    B: Reduction potentials = Overall best predictor and measure of the ability to oxidize or reduce.
         Determination of net potentials
 
6: LAB Activity 1 – Making of batteries (voltaic or galvanic cell) – last 15 minutes 
     we may not get to this.
    In this Lab each person will make a pair of voltaic cells that if successfully created will power a          3 volt transistor radio.
 
    a) Made one voltaic cell and identifies anode, cathode and tested voltage.
         Identified the spontaneous process with positive volts
         wrote half reactions, identified ox and red agents.
 
LAB 1 – Voltaic Cell.pdf
View Download      
 
Today’s Whoosh Bottle demo: Combustion (REDOX) of alcohol vapor.
Whoosh bottle with a twist:
 
9/9 –  Wednesday – “B” Day homework:
 
1.  View the Daniell Cell Lecture below – we started this in class.
2.  Complete the Daniell Cell Lecture below:  You have 2 graded submissions due tomorrow
 
You may need the standard reduction potential table (voltages for half reactions) – 
page 2 of your reference tables:
 
2008 AP Chemistry Reference Tables.pdf
View Download
 
Daniell Cell Lecture :
 

YouTube Video

 

Daniell Cell Form:

Daniell Cell Lecture Form

Extra Help: 
 
Mr.  Grodski is inviting you to a scheduled Zoom meeting.
 
Topic: 9/9 Extra Help
Time: Sep 9, 2020 02:15 PM Eastern Time (US and Canada)
 
Join Zoom Meeting
https://us02web.zoom.us/j/87064514632?pwd=T3B2NkRMcExMcmVoWTFUcmx6RjRGUT09
 
Meeting ID: 870 6451 4632
Passcode: Uq4g5f
End of Wednesday..

9/10  – Thursday- “C” Day – period 2, –  I    2(A,C) 3(A)  AP CHEMISTRY
                                                     –period 2, –    2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
period 2, –  R   2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION – please see your assignment in the REMOTE INSTRUCTION PAGE
                    
– period 2, –  I    2(A,C) 3(A)  AP CHEMISTRY – BLUE TEAM is present today!
 
Main focus – To better understand the Standard Reduction Potential Table and apply in to determine the Net E0cell – electromotor force (volts) for chemical reactions.
 
 
We will use the following worksheet today in class:
 
Redox 4 – Net potentials Demonstrations worksheet 1213.pdf
View Download
 
Redox 4 – Net potentials Demonstrations worksheet 1213 key p.pdf
View Download
Standard Reduction Potential Table.pdf
View Download
 
Summer Institute and Summer Assignment Connections Form KEY .pdf
 
 
1. Review of Summer Institute Summer Institute and Summer Assignment Connections Form 
    used key below to review last question.
 
Summer Institute and Summer Assignment Connections Form KEY .pdf
 
2.  Standard Reductions Table Basics lesson
 
                                                        Cu in SnCl Reaction vs.  Sn in CuCl2
 
 
E0cell – NET VOLTAGE!
 
positive voltage = spontaneous = there is a pathway that the universe allows = IT REACTS!
 
negative voltage = non spontaneous = there is a no pathway that the universe allows = IT doesn’t
 
Electron transport system, F vs O2 , S vs O as final electron acceptor, 
Na vs Cu for pipes, Gold inactivity
spontaneity and free Energy/ pathway of energy/ voltage
 
3.  Danielle Cell – connections
 
-period 3,4 (LAB) – R  3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION – SEE REMOTE PAGE
-period 3,4 (LAB) – I.  3(C) 4(A,C) AP CHEMISTRY – ORANGE TEAM PRESENT TODAY-
                                     DOUBLE PERIOD!
 
  1st period– Same lesson posted above      
  2nd period – Voltaic cell Lab 1                                            
 
 LAB Activity 1 – Making of batteries (voltaic or galvanic cell) – last 15 minutes
    In this Lab each person will make a pair of voltaic cells that if successfully created will power a          3 volt transistor radio.
 
    a) Made one voltaic cell and identifies anode, cathode and tested voltage.
         Identified the spontaneous process with positive volts
         wrote half reactions, identified ox and red agents.
 
LAB 1 – Voltaic Cell.pdf
 
Today’s Recorded period 3 Lecture (period 2 was a zoom stream):

 

TODAY’s EXTRA Help Zoom meeting link:
Topic: EXTRA HELP AP CHEMISTRY 9/10
Time: Sep 10, 2020 02:30 PM Eastern Time (US and Canada)
Join Zoom Meeting
https://us02web.zoom.us/j/85037759407?pwd=amEwK050Q005ODQ5QUF5YnowZkxJdz09
Meeting ID: 850 3775 9407
Passcode: 2mqt9X
One tap mobile
+16465588656,,85037759407#,,,,,,0#,,805230# US (New York)
 
9/10  – Thursday- “C” Day Homework – FOR ALL CLASSES
 
*YOU CAN MAKE ONE MORE SUBMISSION TO LAST NIGHT’s FORM – once you have viewed today’s lesson (for a total of 3 submissions).
 
Link to today’s zoom meeting :
Passcode: $7!e04*x
 
1.  Read my *Connections NOTES POSTED IN THE REMOTE LEARNING PAGE.
 
2. Watch the Voltaic Spontaneity lecture 2017 lecture below:

AP Chemistry – Voltaic Spontaneity lecture 2017

Please begin the video at 2:50
 
 
 
3. Complete the Voltaic Spontaneity Form.  You have 3 submissions for this form.
 
Voltaic Spontaneity Form:  
 

Voltaic Spontaneity Form

 

 
I will post an extra Help ZOOM MEETING LINK TODAY through REMIND!
   End of Thursday!

9/11 – Friday – “D” Day – period 2,3 (Lab)  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                              
– period 2,3 (Lab) –  R  2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION – Please move to the REMOTE INSTRUCTION PAGE
 -period 4 – R 3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION – Please move to the REMOTE INSTRUCTION PAGE
 
– period 2,3 (Lab)  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY- RED TEAM DOUBLE PERIOD TODAY!
-period 4 – I  3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY – GREEN TEAM – Single Period
 
1. Review the Voltaic Spontaneity HW Form- with key
     Skills:  Solubility, Spontaneity, Equilibrium, 
                  How concentration of soluble ions in a voltaic cell affect its voltage.
 

Voltaic Spontaneity Form – Key.pdf
View Download

 
2.  NO2 and N2O ampule demo with heat, viewing the ampule as equilibrium
 
manipulating the spontaneity with heat, in phase changes, adding salt to ice
 
3.  LeChateliers Principle/ with worksheet
 
LeChateliers principle worksheet p.pdf
View Download
 
LeChateliers principle worksheet KEY 2012 p.pdf
View Download
 
4.  Revist the Classroom Daniell cell and predict voltage 
     by manipulating concentration of free ions
 
5.  BOOK, Whoosh Bottle demo – Combustion/redox /spontaneous reactions
 
 
                                                -period 4 – I  3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                -period 4 – R 3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
LAB Period for:  2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
 
6.  Lab 1 – constructing a Voltaic Cell-
In this Lab each person will make a voltaic cell that if successfully created will power a  3 volt transistor radio.
 
    a) Made one voltaic cell and identifies anode, cathode and tested voltage.
         Identified the spontaneous process with positive volts
         wrote half reactions, identified ox and red agents.
 
LAB 1 – Voltaic Cell.pdf
View Download          
 
Solubility Animation:  How salt (ionic compounds) dissolve IF SOLUBLE (weak Coulombic attractions)!
 

 

  Basic LeChatelier’s Principle Lesson:  if you need more clatification

Lecture 3.9 – Le Chatelier’s Principle

 
Today’s Period 4 lesson (same lesson as the zoom live stream period 2):
I will have Extra help today at 2:15 – 2:45:
                            I will post the ZOOM link later through REMIND!
 
Ben Grodski is inviting you to a scheduled Zoom meeting.
Topic: 9/11 extra help
Time: Sep 11, 2020 02:00 PM Eastern Time (US and Canada)
Join Zoom Meeting
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9/11 – Friday – “D” Day – Homework
1. Complete LeChateliers Principle worksheet (front side) given out in class 
    and review the key below:
LeChateliers principle worksheet p.pdf
View Download
LeChateliers principle worksheet KEY 2012 p.pdf
View Download
 
2.  Please complete Intro Voltaic Cells Worksheet 2 
     BUT PLEASE Complete QUESTION 2 ONLY!!
      THIS IS THE SIDE THAT HAS NO TITLE. Sorry both sides are numbered 1!
Intro Voltaic Cells worksheet 2 – skills.pdf
View Download
3.  Review question 2 with the key below.
 
Intro Voltaic Cells worksheet 2 – skills Key p.pdf
View Download
 
4.  And/or you can follow along with me going over Question 2 with lecture below.
Intro Voltaic Cells worksheet 2 – skills.pdf  worksheet Lecture:  
 
Click on START AT 23:12 to view the video below to start directly at question 2.
 

AP Chemistry Voltaic Cell Concepts Review worksheet 2

THERE IS NO FORM THIS WEEKEND!

* From this moment on All students are responsible for the timely completion of the online assignments.  A form homework IS ALWAYS DUE by 4:00 am the following morning unless it is a weekend homework and then it is due Monday morning by 4:00 am.  If there is an issue of any kind I NEED AN EMAIL with any concerns or problems.  The email must occur before the 4:00 am deadline.  
 
Without this email, YOUR zero will have to stand.  Each assignment has a purpose and they build on each other. If you do them at your own pace then what I am doing in class will not make any sense.

Have an average weekend.
 
End of week 1!
 I went blank here…..
week 1 remote
9/8 – REMOTE INSTRUCTION STUDENTS – 2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION – Lab – double period
                                                                                            3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION – Single
 
Summer Institute and Summer Assignment Connections:
 
Today in class I will be connecting many of the concepts that you initially learned this summer with a discussion that will contain the following:
 
Many of you came from AP Biology last year and I know a few had Regents Chemistry last year but the year before you had Living Environment.  So from AP Biology and Living Environment we can think that Biology essentially can be broken down into really one concept:
 
                                                                                Proteins !!!
 
     Yes DNA is important but it codes for the proteins that gives us our ALLELES or our traits!! 
                                             I always say that proteins are the soldiers of the DNA!
 
Proteins catalyze chemical reactions that produce everything that life requires!!  
                               without chemical reactions there is no life!
 
Proteins help cells identify the world around them as they act as receptors.  Without these receptors our immune system would not work and we would all die from the “common cold”! 
 
Proteins are important chemical messengers (hormones like insulin). Without our cell would not be able to transport glucose into our cells and we would not have the free energy to live and survive.
 
Proteins are help in transporting materials like hemoglobin that transports oxygen (O2) in our blood and transport proteins that help NAD+  or FAD reach the mitochondria.  NAD+  or FAD transports electrons to the electron transport chain (in oxidative phosphorylation) in aerobic respiration!
 
Proteins are used as a nutrient and can feed cellular respiration to provide free energy to living organisms.
 
Proteins are made from 20 different amino acids that arrange the elements oxygen (O), nitrogen (N), carbon (C), and hydrogen (H) 20 in different 3 – D shapes.  The ability of proteins to do their biological job depend on the number and arrangement of these 4 elements!  Why these elements?  The details of biology are in the chemistry!
 
 Protein are polymers that are made of monomers called amino acids.  Amino acids have a unique group of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen element that give the molecule the properties that make it an amino acid.

 
 The atoms of  C, H, O, and N arranged in this fashion create amino acids that create proteins.  
Atoms and the chemistry behind them ARE the microscopic details of Biology!
The details of Biology are in the chemistry!!!!  Why do we require Oxygen in cellular respiration?
 
If you remember Oxygen pulls electrons electrons through electron transport chain. Once the chain is complete it eventually accepts electrons and 2 H+‘s to become water. 
 
So oxygen is needed to force our cells to produce the most ATP possible by the transport of high energy electrons from glucose using FAD and NAD+ into the matrix of the mitochondria.  Without this system there are no complex forms of life!  (See Figure 1)
 
So even though biology macroscopically (large picture) is really about proteins, life’s most important process, cellular respiration boils down microscopically (small picture) to electrons that drive chemical reactions that give cells free energy and the electrons that keep protein’s elements together in chemical bonds.
 
So chemistry principles are the details of Biology (and electrons are the details of chemistry)!
 

Figure 1: Oxidative Phosphorylation (electron transport chain of cellular respiration):
So we have learned FROM THE SUMMER INSTITUTE or the SUMMER ASSIGNMENT that Redox reactions are chemical reactions that pass electrons around (which is exactly what happens .  Redox reactions are the most abundant chemical reactions that exist.  If you ever have any doubt what kind of chemical reaction that is occurring the BEST guess is that it is a redox reaction. 
 
The reason why REDOX is the most abundant is that we naturally have a large number of available elements that have a great ability
                                                                        to lose electrons = Oxidation 
 
*2/3 of all naturally occurring elements are LARGE ELEMENTS 
         example from figure 1:                      NADH —> NAD+ + e-
                                      
                      NADH delivers an electron to the chain and thus is oxidized in the process.
This oxidation cause high energy electrons to pump H+ into the inter membrane space in high concentration.
The high H+ concentration diffuses through ATP synthase and makes the protein move to ADD Phosphate ion onto an ADP to make ATP!  That is why they call it Oxidation Phosphorylation!!!
 
and the reason why REDOX is the most abundant is that we naturally have a large number of available elements that have a great ability 
 
                                                                        to gain electrons = Reduction
 
*1/3 of all naturally occurring elements are SMALL ELEMENTS but because some these are in high abundance in nature like oxygen in our atmosphere these types of elements are in constant contact.
 
 
So because we have these 2 main type of elements (Big and Small) this sets the stage for Redox (transfer of electrons) reactions.  How does the size of atoms lead to REDOX or even oxidation phosphorylation in cellular respiration?
 
                        This lead us to the one concept that Chemistry is all about!
 
Like Biology (which is about proteins) Chemistry is about electrons or better yet how electrons are attracted to the positive nucleus.
 
                                                        The details of Biology is Chemistry!
 
                                                The details of the Chemistry are the Physics 
 
or the physical laws that govern all matter (atoms), specifically how electrons (that are negatively charged are attracted to the positive nucleus (made of protons).
 
                        The physical law that governs all of chemistry is Coulombs Law!
 
                            Coulombs Law =   F  =  K  q1  q2
                                                                                 d2  
                                                    
                                                    F = Force of Electrostatic Attraction 
                                                    K = proportionality constant ( I will explain this later)
                                                    q1 = size of negative charge
                                                    q2 = size of the positive charge
                                                    d2 = distance between the 2 opposite charges squared      
 
The Force (F) of attraction between 2 point points charges of opposite charge (q1 & q2) is directly
 proportional to the size of the charges and inversely related to the square of the distance between these charges. 
Directly proportional to the size of the charges – 
-IF the size of the opposing point charge increases then the Force of Attraction will be greater proportionally.  We will see this in insoluble salts (ionic compounds) that cannot dissolve in a couple of weeks.  
 
Example:                                          NaCl  (s)       è      Na(aq)    +   Cl– (aq)
sodium chloride can break into its ions in water because the coulombic force between positive and negative ions in the crystal of NaCl are weak compared to the ions attracted to water.  Water which we will learn has a positive and negative area (its polar) and so its positive area can attract the  Na(aq)  ion enough to pull it away from the Cl– (aq) ion that it is attracted to to make the compound. When this happens we say it is soluble (meaning water can break the electrostatic attraction between the negative part of the salt and the positive part of the salt.
 
We say they are soluble since water will break apart the ionic solid – which is called dissolving
 
Please watch this animation to see what I am talking about:
This is an example of spontaneous physical reaction.
 
Now MgO is not soluble and does not dissolve in water because the coulombic force between the to ions of different charges are too large!  If I made an animation of water trying to dissolve MgO it would be boring as no salt would dissolve.
 
This would be an example of a non-spontaneous physical reaction.
 
                                                             MgO (s)    è     does not break apart into its ions in water 
 
This is because the Mg+2  and O-2 ions have HIGHER point charges THUS the Force (F) between the ions is TOO LARGE for water to break apart thus it is insoluble and remains as solid in water.
 
Inversely related to the square of the distance between these charges- 
 
– IF the distance increases between the 2 point charges then the F decreases (inverse square relation).  We will look at this inverse square in our atomic structure discussion later in the course. But in terms of the outermost negative electrons ( Q1) and their Proximity (d) to the positive nucleus (Q2) the farther away the electrons the lower the coulombic attractive force that these electrons feel, thus these elements generally lose electrons (oxidize).  We see this in the sodium metal demo in water.  
 
                                            WATER easily pulls an electron away from the sodium metal
                                            What I am showing you is a half reaction because Na is oxidized
                                             while the water is reduced. I am only showing you half of the redox as
                                             I am omitting the reduction.
 
                                Oxidation :                    Na                 è            Na+1   +    1 e–   +  Energy 
 
 
The reason Na can lose electrons (LEO) and oxidize in water is because the size of the Na atom is so big that is outermost electron (valence) feels the positive nucleus less and can be removed.
The electrostatic forces are weaker between the negative electron and the positive nucleus.  Larger the atom the weaker the electrons are held!
 
 
Notice the lowered Force is amplified because of the squaring of the larger distance that metals have between their nucleus and outermost (valance electrons). Increasing the size of the denominator will always Increase the entire value of the formula.
 
Here my demonstration of adding sodium metal atoms into water:
This is an example of a spontaneous reaction.
 

 

IF the distance decreases between the 2 point charges then the Electrostatic Force (F) increases .  In terms of the outermost negative electrons (Q1) and the Proximity (d) to the positive nucleus (Q2) the CLOSER the electrons are to the nucleus, the greater the coulombic attractive force that these electrons feel, thus these elements generally gain electrons (reduce).  We see this every time you see a combustion reaction where oxygen grabs electrons from metals causing them to corrode or change into a new compound or in combustion when oxygen grabs electrons from carbon (bigger nonmetal)
 
Here are 2 examples of combustion reactions:
Combustions reactions are guess what??
 
REDOX reactions that use oxygen (a small atom) that is able to attract electrons so well because of its small size (d2) and it large number of protons (q2).
 
OXYGEN:
Making the proton number larger (numerator) and the denominator smaller leads to a 
LARGE F  or electrostatic force!
 
This is why oxygen is the earths most important oxidizer!!
It cause other atoms, molecules, or ions to lose electrons.
Oxygen causes oxidation!
Why don’t you think they call the losing of electron Oxidation
 

Here are 2 examples of combustion (or REDOX reaction that uses Oxygen as the oxidizer):

                                                                      2Fe    +     O2      è        2FeO        +     Energy 
                                                        Pure Iron                               RUST 
 
                                                   C6H10O5     +     6O2      è         6CO2       +          5H2O   + Energy
                                                                         glucose
This second reaction is cellular respiration!! Why do we need to breath oxygen??  To get the high energy electrons out of glucose to make ATP and those high energy electrons that was put their by photosynthesis!!  Everything is connected!
             Reduction half reaction for both:               O    +     2e      è        O-2  
 
OXYGEN:

 

In both cases Oxygen became reduced or pulled the electrons because of its higher coulombic attraction due to electrons Closer to the nucleus (smaller d) in part due to the atomic radius being smaller.  In the case of the combustion reaction of the cotton ball oxygen has both smaller d and greater (Q2) due to having a greater nuclear charge (more protons) than carbon. That is how Oxygen (a nonmetal) can pull an electron from another nonmetals (carbon)!!!!!!!
 
 
Now lets get back to size of atoms and how we can predict their type of chemical reactivity.  We now know why oxygen takes electrons from things like metals based on Coulombs Law( to make rust ) but we have not figured out why oxygen is so small in the first place.  We saw that Na is large and due to Coulombs law it tends to lose electrons (oxidize) unlike Oxygen which is small and tends to gain electrons (reduce).
 
If we look at periodic chart of elements and use their relative atomic radii (size compared to each other) we can see a trend:
 The elements are arranged according to their the number of their number of protons (q2) and the electron shells (row number) they have. 
 
Protons increase left to right and then start a new row. 
Example: H has 1 proton, while He has 2 and Li has 3 and so forth…
The proton number changes the numerator in Coulombs Law!
 
Every additional shell is farther away (d2)from the nucleus that contains protons.  
Example: Na has electrons in 3 shells while K has electron in 4 shells .
The proton number changes the numerator in Coulombs Law!
 
Notice as you move across the Periodic Table the atomic radius generally decreases because you are adding more electrons in the same electron shell.  Notice F (fluorine) is smaller than oxygen because it has more protons.  This causes F to reduce better than O.  If we breathed in F instead of oxygen the electron would not move through the electron transport chain. They would immediately be sucked up by F.  This is one of the reasons that F2 gas is toxic!!!
 
Notice are you move down the Periodic Table (in the same column) the atomic radius generally increases as you are adding additional shells of electrons. Shells are determined by the row number.  Na (sodium) is in row 3 and thus has 3 shells of electrons while K (potassium) is in row 4 and thus has one more shell of electrons that is father away from the nucleus than Na.  This explains why K loses electrons or oxidizes more than Na.
 The larger elements like Na are bottom left and the smaller elements light oxygen are top right.
      The elements that oxidize are bottom left and the element that reduce are top right.
                          The larger elements are metals and the smaller elements are nonmetals.
                                                            Metals oxidize and Nonmetals reduce.
                                   Metals are reducing agents and Nonmetals are oxidizing agents
 
Elvira the outermost electron: (start at 6:20)

YouTube Video

So lets put this all together in a chemical reaction that represents a great example of a Redox reaction that features a metal and a nonmetal.
                            2 Na (s)    +    2 Cl2 (g)      —>     2NaCl (s)
                                              Metal                         Nonmetal                        Ionic Compound (salt)
 
                                        Large atom                    Small atom
                                            
                                  Loosely held electrons          Tightly held electrons
                                
                                     Loses electrons             Gains electrons
 
                                        Gets oxidized              Gets Reduced    
 
                      acts as the reducing agent     acts as a the oxidizing agent  
 
Here is the chemical reaction (demo):
   oxidation half reaction:                                            2Na0   —>   2Na+  +  2e-
                 
  reduction half reaction        Cl2    +       2e-    —>    2Cl
                       ________________________________________________________
                          2 Na (s)    +    2 Cl2 (g)      —>     2NaCl (s)
*notice the 2 half reactions are written so that the electrons are cancelled out.  Electrons lost = Electrons gained.

*notice that the electrons on ecah

 
 
How many different modules did I interconnect today?? Could you have understood any of this if you did complete the Summer Institute?
 
3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION – Single – Will end Here and complete Classwork Form below:
2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION – Lab – Will continue onto the Voltaic Cell Lab activity after completing Classwork Form.
 
Voltaic Cell Lab activity  To be posted.
2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION only
Classwork Form/Classwork Form: Please complete the form based on notes above.
For both Remote Sections:
3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION 
2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION 
 
Today’s Lecture that you can use instead of reading above:
 
Summer Institute and Summer Assignment Connections Form:
 

Summer Institute and Summer Assignment Connections Form 20/21

 
Please go to week one to view homework! The form you just completed will be homework for the 
 in-person class.
 
_______________________________________________________________________
 
9/9 – REMOTE INSTRUCTION STUDENTS – 2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
                                                                                        3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
1. Complete the attendance Form below:
 

9/9 AP Chemistry – REMOTE INSTRUCTION ATTENDANCE

 

 
2. Please make sure you added yourself into my AP Classroom.
 
3. Please view the Lecture on Daniel Cell (first battery – voltaic cell).  It might help to draw the Cell with me.
 
4.  Complete the Classwork/Homework Form (Daniell cell):
 
You may need the standard reduction potential table (voltages for half reactions) – 
page 2 of your reference tables:
 
2008 AP Chemistry Reference Tables.pdf
View Download
 
Daniel Cell Lecture:
Daniel cell Form:

Daniell Cell Lecture Form

Extra Help: 
 
Mr.  Grodski is inviting you to a scheduled Zoom meeting.
 
Topic: 9/9 Extra Help
Time: Sep 9, 2020 02:30 PM Eastern Time (US and Canada)
 
Join Zoom Meeting
https://us02web.zoom.us/j/87064514632?pwd=T3B2NkRMcExMcmVoWTFUcmx6RjRGUT09
 
Meeting ID: 870 6451 4632
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9/10 – REMOTE INSTRUCTION STUDENTS – 2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
                                                                                             3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 

9/10 AP Chemistry – REMOTE INSTRUCTION ATTENDANCE

 

WE are meeting LIVE in class with the other class via Zoom:
 

Mr.  Grodski is inviting you to a scheduled Zoom meeting.

Topic: 9/10 AP Chemistry lesson
Time: Sep 10, 2020 08:15 AM Eastern Time (US and Canada)

Join Zoom Meeting
https://us02web.zoom.us/j/81673878254?pwd=R2c2WWNleTFqRFM1dGt6ZmZBSmQzZz09

Meeting ID: 816 7387 8254
Passcode: 3zt95X
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LINK TO TODAYS MEETING that was recorded:


https://drive.google.com/file/d/1weJgf-Xp8aI3pjaOPLP3KVTwuCbKRkDj/view?usp=sharing

Main focus – To better understand the Standard Reduction Potential Table and apply in to determine the Net E0cell – electromotor force (volts) for chemical reactions.
We will use the following worksheet today in class:
 
Redox 4 – Net potentials Demonstrations worksheet 1213.pdf
View Download
 
Redox 4 – Net potentials Demonstrations worksheet 1213 key p.pdf
View Download
Standard Reduction Potential Table.pdf
View Download
 
Summer Institute and Summer Assignment Connections Form KEY .pdf
 
THIS IS FOR EVERYBODY for tonights homework!
*Connections:  Spontaneity 
 
In all chemical reactions there is possibility that the reverse reaction could occur.  A chemical reaction that reaches equilibrium is one where the forward reaction occurs at the same rate as the reverse reaction.  For example:
 
                                                                   2NO2 (g) <=>  N2O(g)  
                                                                                               
                                                                                                  or
 
                                                                NO2 (g)  +   NO2 (g) <=>  N2O(g) 
 
Now this reaction reaches equilibrium and because the rate or speed of the forward reaction equals the rate of speed of the reverse reaction the amount of each chemical stays constant.  If we were to put NO2 only in the reaction vessel and seal the container, a graph of the changes in concentration (Molarity or partial pressure) would like the following.
 
  Notice that concentration of the NO2 is large initially and decreases as the reaction proceeds.

Notice the initial concentration of N2O4 is zero (it has not been made yet) and increases as the reaction proceeds.

Both NO2 and N2O4 eventually level out and at this point equilibrium has been reached!

If the rate of 2NO2 combining to make N2O4 (forward reaction) is as fast as rate of N2O4 decomposing into 2NO2 (reverse reaction) then the concentration of both chemicals become CONSTANT at equilibrium.

 

So what does this look like?  Well it is pretty boring in that it appears that nothing is going on because the reactants and products stay constant.  In truth there plenty going on because forward reaction and the reverse reaction atr continuously going on but there is no NET change.  
 
Also notice part people that the reactants (NO2 )  and products ( N2O4 ) ARE NOT Equal at equilibrium.  IN this example or reaction  NO2  is favored at equilibrium.  Why would nature favor the NO2?   Which of the 2 chemicals has the greatest dispersed energy?  The 2 pieces ( NO2 ) or the larger whole (N2O4)?
The 2 smaller pieces!! Nature favors energy that spreads out.  
 
Nature favors a pathway that has the greatest amount of dispersed energy. We call this Entropy (S)!  So we know that the universe works by always providing a pathway for energy to go from a high concentrated source to a lower energy source.  In other words, Chemical or physical processes can only occur if the universe provides a pathway for it to happen.  This pathway is dependent upon the Entropy (S) to increase in the universe or an increase in the change of Entropy (ΔS).  This is the second Law of Thermodynamics!
 
                                                               
                                                        ΔSuniverse = increase ( IF There is a pathway!!)
 
That is why Heat flows to Cold always!! There are limits to what can be done with matter and it all depends on Energy dispersing!  If Energy is being diluted or dispersed into the Universe then the process is SPONTANEOUS under a set of defined conditions.
 
If the Energy is not dispersing into the universe then there is NO PATHWAY for the reaction or process to occur!! This process is NONSPONTANEOUS under a set of defined conditions.
 
If you think of it this way then you can understand why a change of how fast a reaction occurs (RATE) has nothing to do with spontaneity. In the case of the reaction above 2 particles (NO2) combine to make larger one (N2O4) or 1 particle breaks into 2 particles in the reverse.  This ratio is upheld no matter how many more of these multiples I have.  If I have 20 pieces (NO2) I will make 10 larger one (NO2 ) and if it occurs faster by adding a catalyst then whole number ratio is upheld!
 
Now in getting back to the equilibrium condition in above diagram or the reaction:
 
                                                                   2NO2 (g) <=>  N2O(g)  
 
The forward reaction is moving as fast as the reverse. Since there is no net change there is no increase in Entropy in the universe or there is no real preferred pathway when equilibrium is reached.  At this position the Energy has been dispersed already!!! This is the death of the chemical reaction in one direction!!  All reactions move in a direction to exhaust there energy into the universe until it empties!  That point is equilibrium!!!!
 
Thus all reactions move toward equilibrium, and thus get less spontaneous over time as they approach equilibrium or reach the death of the chemical reaction!  The father away a reaction is from equilibrium the more spontaneous it is!!  
 
This diagram illustrates what I am talking about:
 
At point C, there 100% NO2  and 0% N2O4  thus there is no competing reaction because there is no NOto combine to make the N2O4.  The reverse reaction is at it maximum spontaneity and the forward reaction is at its minimum. There is a Shift in the reaction to move in the reverse. Over time its spontaneity will steadily decrease until it reaches the point of equilibrium and the “death of the reaction”.
  Notice that the equilibrium position is at the bottom!! This is where the death of the reaction or where there is ZERO Spontaneity or No more release of energy into the Universe.

                                ΔSuniverse = O

At point A we have 100% NO2 and 0% N2O4.  At this point there is tremendous pathway to go forward!  There is No competing backwards reaction!! The reverse reaction is impossible here.  It so spontaneous in the forward that the reverse is impossible!

At point B, there is 60% NO2 and 40%  N2O4.
Here we have a competing reaction reverse reaction thus the forward reactions is not as spontaneous and the reaction is getting closer to its death.  The reverse reaction is still not as spontaneous as the forward but it is closing in, thus the overall Net direction is still forward but this pathway is not nearly as great as point A.

This shift is what we learn in Le Chateliers Principle – 
 
Regents definition:  When a stress is placed on a reaction at equilibrium, the reaction will shift forward of reverse to regain its balance.
 
 
REAL Definition:  When a stress (a change in concentration) is placed on a reversible reaction the reaction will become more spontaneous in one direction in order to keep dispersing energy until it is run out (and no more work can be done).  In a battery this means 0.00 volts!! 
 
We have learned that voltage is the Energy to move current or charge around circuit either by the pushing of chemicals that spontaneously oxidize and in combination with chemicals that pull charge by spontaneously reducing.  The voltage of a half reaction tells us about the spontaneity, ability to reduce or oxidize, or the pathway to do so based on the amount of dispersed energy that get released into the universe!  Voltages give us a measured value of the available pathway for the redox reaction to occur.  
 
So my question is, Why does a battery have a voltage drop? Why does it die?
 
Equilibrium and the death of chemical reaction is NOT unique to chemical changes only!
 
In physical changes (no bonds broken just attractions) equilibrium also will STOP phase changes!
That is why the melting point stays at one Temperature! 
 
Example:         Heat  + H2O (s)  <—>  H2O (l)
If you start with a cooler of just ice AND ASSUME NO HEAT enters your cooler what will Happen? 

At first when you have 100% ice and 0% liquid water and there WILL HAVE the greatest spontaneity 0r PATHWAY to melt or go forward.

The cooler will eventually get to the point where there is ice and water mixture and reaches equilibrium and thus the rate of melting  equals the rate of freezing (or refreezing).  At this point no more can be work is done there is no more spontaneity in either direction.
If no heat leaked into the cooler then then you would have an the same amount of ice and liquid water in the cooler forever.

freezing melting equilbrium animation

Because heat leaks into the container (darn entropy!) the forward reaction becomes more spontaneous because of Le Chateliers Principle and eventually all ice will melt because at higher temperatures liquid water can disperse its energy (is more random) than the ice.

Ok then can we manipulate the physical process?  We do this all the time. How about placing salt on ice?
                                                            H2O (s)  <—>  H2O (l)
We all know that salt will melt ice BUT WHY?

How can I manipulate the above physical process so that the Ice will melt even if it is currently at equilibrium?

We make the forward direction move spontaneous!!!  We help give the forward process an increased pathway!!

Remember that ice and water at equilibrium and if we can BLOCK the water molecules  from refreezing the RATE of melting will now exceed the RATE of refreezing and melting will occur!!

Freezing Point Depression animation

Salt will physical get in the way of liquid water reaching the crystal pattern of the ice MORE than the ice crystals melting!

                                                              H2O (s)  <—>  H2O (l)
So really we limiting the reverse pathway!!  Hey if we make the reverse pathway less favorable don’t we make the forward MORE FAVORABLE AND MORE SPONTANEOUS!!!
 
 
Please go to week one for tonights homework!

9/11 – Friday – “D” Day – 
                                              
– period 2,3 (Lab) –  R  2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION – BLUE TEAM is HERE!
-period 4 – R  – 3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION – Orange Team is here!
 

9/11 AP Chemistry – REMOTE INSTRUCTION ATTENDANCE

 

 
WE WILL LIVE STREAM THROUGH ZOOM at 8:15 this morning:
If you cannot make it I will post the link to the recorded meeting later today.
I will also record it and post it later in a youtube video.  I did that yesterday.
I posted the youtube video in week one at the end of THursday.
 
Topic: 9/11 AP Chemistry lesson
Time: Sep 11, 2020 08:15 AM Eastern Time (US and Canada)
 
Join Zoom Meeting
 
Meeting ID: 836 0889 0598
Passcode: 3sUAfP
One tap mobile
+16465588656,,83608890598#,,,,,,0#,,964034# US (New York)
 
LINK TO TODAY’S RECORDED ZOOM STREAM:
*YOU might want to print the LeChateliers principle worksheet p.pdf for today.
 
MAIN FOCUS:  To apply the basics of equilibrium, voltage from Standard Reductions Table, spontaneity, solubility to the voltaic cell.
 
1. Review the Voltaic Spontaneity HW Form- with key
     Skills:  Solubility, Spontaneity, Equilibrium, 
                  How concentration of soluble ions in a voltaic cell affect its voltage.
 

Voltaic Spontaneity Form – Key.pdf
View Download

 
2.  NO2 and N2O ampule demo with heat.
 
3.  LeChateliers Principle/ with worksheet
 
LeChateliers principle worksheet p.pdf
View Download
 
LeChateliers principle worksheet KEY 2012 p.pdf
View Download
 
4.  Re-vist the Classroom Daniell cell and predict voltage 
     by manipulating concentration of free ions
                                                      
5.  ITS a REMOTE double period for 2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION – BLUE TEAM 
     but NO lab period will be remote today
Please see week one class webpage for this weekends homework.