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Archive – Q3 week 2 – 20 – 21

Week of 2/8 – 2/12
 
Please Refresh every time you open– this page is changing often!
 
The 4 day – A, B, C, D cycle looks like this:
                                                       Day                               Period
                                                                           2                       3                       4       
                
                                         In class:         A                  Lab                   Lab               Single Class
                                   Remote:                           Lab                   Lab              Single Class
 
                                       In class:         B         Single Class        LAB                   LAB
                                                          Remote:                     Single Class        LAB                   LAB
 
                                         In class:              C         Single Class              LAB                    LAB
                                   Remote:                     Single Class        LAB                    LAB
 
Monday                         In class:          D               Lab                   Lab             Single Class
                                   Remote:                           Lab                   Lab              Single Class
                 
 
This weeks 5 day Schedule:
2/8  –  Monday –  “D” Day          – period 2,3 (Lab)  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                           – period 2,3 (Lab) –  R  2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
  
                                                         – period 4 – I  3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                         – period 4 – R 3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
2/9  – Tuesday –  “A” Day         – period 2,3 (Lab) –     2(A,C) 3(A)  AP CHEMISTRY
                                                            – period 2,3 (Lab) –  R   2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
                                                             – period 4 – I   3(C) 4(A,C) AP CHEMISTRY 
                                                             – period 4 – R  3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
2/10  – Wednesday –  “B” Day  period 2,  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                            -period 2, –  R   2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
                                                            -period 3,4 (LAB) – I   3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                            -period 3,4 (LAB) – R  3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
2/11  –  Thursday-  “C” Day         – period 2, –  I    2(A,C) 3(A)  AP CHEMISTRY
                                                             – period 2, –  R   2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
                
                                                           -period 3,4 (LAB) – I.  3(C) 4(A,C) AP CHEMISTRY 
                                                           -period 3,4 (LAB) – R  3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
2/12  –  Friday –  “D” Day          – period 2,3 (Lab)  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                           – period 2,3 (Lab) –  R  2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
  
                                                         – period 4 – I  3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                         – period 4 – R 3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION

2/8  –  Monday –  “D” Day          – period 2,3 (Lab)  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                           – period 2,3 (Lab) –  R  2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
  
                                                          – period 4 – I  3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                          – period 4 – R 3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
The Blue Team and the Orange Team are Remote today.  Please move to the Remote Instruction page.
 
Period 2, Period 4:
1.  Plank and Einstein’s contribution to the development of the duality of particle and wave behavior of light. 
 
Plank Energy was quantized by a multiple of (h) = Plank’s constant
 
Einstein = Light was quantized into packets called photons and each electron interacted with a single photon
 
    a) Review of the photoelectric effect with animation.
These ideas was on a crash course towards the particle model of the atom
 
Up to this point we have discussed how Plank gave us the concept of quanta – discreet energy requirements for the oscillators in a Black Body Radiator. And how Einstein gave us the concept of photons (light existing as a particles of energy) in his explanation of the photoelectric effect.  Einstein postulated that light is quantized and that matter (atoms) is quantized by the quanta of light it can accept.  His contribution was vital to the development of quantum mechanics in that electrons and photons are paired with one another in energy changes of matter.  Also the contribution that light can have particle (mass) properties and wave properties (particle/wave duality) was monumental for the development of quantum mechanics.
 
So Plank uncovered the secret to the Ultraviolet Catastrophe and Einstein the photoelectric effect.  Both were phenomenon that classical  physics could not explain.  
 
Bright Line Spectra was another phenomenon that know one knew how to explain and yet since the 1850’s it was used to identify elements based on the type of light emitted by elements when they are subject to high energy.
 
Here is a simple animation on how it is determined:
 
These Bright Lines, Photons of a specific Energy ( E = hv) are emitted from each element differently and thus can be used to identify elements.  Helium, He was discovered from the light given off from the sun.  Light from the sun was diffracted and all of the bright lines were identified from all known elements at the time and the Bright Lines that remained was thought to have come from a new element that was yet to be discovered on earth.  They called it Helium, the Greek God of the Sun (Helios). Thirty years later Helium was discovered on Earth and it had the same spectral lines as the mysterious new element discovered on the Sun!
 
I will perform this demo today and tomorrow and we will look at the spectral lines of a few elements and some molecules.
 
Neill’s Bohr was the first to explain thi phenomenon by creating a model of the atom that suggested that the energy levels in an atom are quantized and that the spectral lines are due to electrons making quantum leaps from higher to lower energy levels. 
 
  Bohr took Plank’s and Einstein’s ideas as was the first to make a quantum model of the atom that stated that electrons can only have discreet energy levels (quanta) and that when they move (quantum leap) the energy changes result in photons of light being released (when moving back to the ground state) or absorbed (when moving to higher energy states).  Before Bohr the model of the atom was Rutherfords, where electrons orbited the nucleus but could have any energy
2. Bright line Spectrum – Gas Discharge Tubes Demo’s

Atomic Structure 2 – Bohr emission spectroscopy

 

Period 3:
 
I will model some of the homework problems from Atomic structure 2 – bohrs.pdf  AND 
atomic structure 3 – de Broglie.pdf
 
Atomic structure 2 – bohrs.pdf

View Download

 
atomic structure 2 – Bohr Key p.pdf

View Download

 
atomic structure 3 – de Broglie Key.pdf
 
2/8  –  Monday –  “D” Day  Homework:
 
 
1: Please watch the lecture below and follow me through the backside of the  Atomic structure 2 – bohrs.pdf worksheet.
 
THE last question should read:
 
Calculate the Energy needed for an electron to transition from the 4th energy shell to the 2nd energy shell?  What color of light is this.
2 Complete questions 1 and 2 in atomic structure 3 worksheet and review with the key. 
     
Atomic structure 2 – bohrs.pdf

View Download

 
atomic structure 2 – Bohr Key p.pdf

View Download

 
atomic structure 3 – de Broglie Key.pdf
 
Atomic structure 3 – de Broglie.pdf

View Download

       
Lecture for the homework:
 

Notice the Balmer Equation: En (for hydrogen only!!)

 
 
3.  Complete the Form Below after or with the Photoelectric Effect Simulation lecture below .
Photoelectric Effect Lecture with simulation:
This weekend’s homework and key will be helpful to have out.
 
 
Tonights Form:

Photoelectric Effect 2021

 

End of Monday!

2/9  – Tuesday –  “A” Day         – period 2,3 (Lab) –     2(A,C) 3(A)  AP CHEMISTRY
                                                          – period 2,3 (Lab) –  R   2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
                                                             – period 4 – I   3(C) 4(A,C) AP CHEMISTRY 
                                                             – period 4 – R  3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION

The Red Team and the Green Team are Remote today. Please move to the Remote Instruction page.

 

Period 2, Period 4:
 
Yesterday I started today talking the bright line spectrum that Bohr interpreted from the Balmer equations. He was able to show the the “bright lines” of Hydrogen were the photons of light emitted by electrons returning to their most stable state (closer to the nucleus or mom). 
 
These Bright lines were made by pure elements being “excited with energy” (electrons moving away from atom in higher energy shells) in gas discharge tubes and when these excited electrons move back to their stable low energy positions photons of light are emitted that are specific to electron moving or transitioning from a higher energy shell to a lower energy shell.
 
Bright line spectrums were know since 1850’s and were specific for each different element.  This means that each different element had its own unique spectrum could be used to identify elements. It was a spectral fingerprint.  The Bright line spectrum was used to discover Helium from light of the sun 30 years before it was discovered on Earth.
 
Bohr, Balmer equation, inverse square law – demo, quantum leaps
 
– Flash animation with quantum leaps
1. Light Theories – positive an negative theory
     Review/Positive and Negative theories of light – color blindness test
 
     Positive theory – Newtons wheel/ light stick wheel/ sunset demo / phosphorescence demo /
2. Emission Spectroscopy: Bright Line Spectrum
 
3. Absorption Spectroscopy:  
 
Period 3:
 
1. Light Theories – positive an negative theory
     Review/Positive and Negative theories of light – color blindness test
 
     Positive theory – color wheel/ light stick wheel/ sunset demo / phosphorescence demo /
2.  Ruben’s Tube Demonstration.
wave behavior demo:
 Sound waves, calculation of speed of sound – tied to type of molecules.
 beat frequency
 
Standing waves  animation- Ruben’s Tube demo complete – measure speed of sound in propane.
                                                       Beat frequency!
 
 
 

Newton’s wheel demo with light sticks:

A version of Newton’s Wheel with lights and Fog:

Sunset demo:

Bright Line Spectrum Playlist – 
                   
phosphorescence demo:
Absorption spectroscopy demo (period 2 class will do this Monday): 
2/9  – Tuesday –  “A” Day – Homework 
 
1. Please complete the Bright Line spectrum worksheet.
Bright line spectra – .pdf

View Download

 
Bright Line spectrum Key p.pdf

View Download

Notice the Balmer Equation: En (for hydrogen only!!)

2. Clash of Titans Timeline continues.  Please continue with your timeline from 27:00 – 34:55.
Sorry but this one will have Spanish subtitles..
 
or
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y-AiqCp7Vlc
NO subtitles!!!

2/10  – Wednesday –  “B” Day  period 2,  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                            -period 2, –  R   2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
                                                            -period 3,4 (LAB) – I   3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                            -period 3,4 (LAB) – R  3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
The Blue Team and the Orange Team are remote today.
 
Period 2, Period 4:
 
1. Helium+1 vs Hydrogen Bright line spectrum:
2: limitations to Bohr’ s model
 
3:  absorption spectroscopy 
4phosphorescence demo: Quantized energy levels
 
5. Louis De broglia –                             
 
Period 4 – 
 
Bright Line Spectra/Absorption Spectra demo’s
Light theories.
2/10  – Wednesday –  “B” Day Homework:  
I know I am laying it on thick with the homework BUT NO homework over break!!!!!
 
1. Complete the Timeline of the Clash of the Titans – due Friday – hardcopy or digital
2.  Please view the lecture below:
 
 
3. Please complete the de Broglie worksheet and review with the key. 
     You should only have questions 3 and 4 left!
 
For those that did not have me discuss Louie De Broglie please still complete questions 3 and 4 using the following formula:
 
 
This was a formula that from a PhD student that needed Einsteins approval.  It used Einstein’s formulas to form a new formula that proposed all things that have matter also have wavelengths! Or better yet, all things that have matter also have wave behavior!  This was the first proposed idea of wave /matter duality that was needed for Quantum Mechanics.  Einstein loved the work because it allowed the conservatives to view the atom exclusive of the mathematics of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics (Niel’s Bohr’s group).
atomic structure 3 – de Broglie Key.pdf
 
Atomic structure 3 – de Broglie.pdf

View Download

4. Please complete form below: 
 
You will have 1 submission to the form tonight and one more tomorrow when I review these concepts in class.
 
*Please use 1 m/sec for the velocity of the proton in question 8 of the form.

Bohr to DeBroglie Atomic Structure Form 2021

End of Wednesday..

2/11  –  Thursday-  “C” Day         – period 2, –  I    2(A,C) 3(A)  AP CHEMISTRY
                                                             – period 2, –  R   2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
                
                                                           -period 3,4 (LAB) – I.  3(C) 4(A,C) AP CHEMISTRY 
                                                           -period 3,4 (LAB) – R  3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
The Red team and the Green Team are Remote today.
 
 
Period 2, Period 3:
1.  Bohr limitations – His model was doomed…..(wave behavior of electrons!)
 
2.  Louis DeBroglia – Electrons as waves! – Matter has waves properties!!!
 
3. De Broglie wavelength ,Compton effect, Davidson  – Germer, William Thompson
 
4. Shrodinger’s equation —> quantum numbers
 
The math from the Bohr team – Copenhagen interpretation gave some very hard phenomenon to think about that must be accepted:
 
1) Heisenberg Uncertainty principle
2) Superposition
3) Quantum Entanglement
4) Multiple Worlds Theory – explains the collapse of the superposition (wave function)
 
In the words of Richard Feynman, (Nobel Prize winner, 1965 – quantum electrodynamics)
 
“If you do not like it. Too bad! Go somewhere else! That is how the universe works!” 
                           

Atomic Structure 2 – Bohr emission spectroscopy

 
Another attempt at the Newtons Wheel:
Period 4:
 
Demo’s – 
Today’s Ruben’s Tube performance:  Thank you student A!!!
2/11  –  Thursday-  “C” Day Homework – 
 
1. Make another submission to last nights Form if you need to. I have graded the form and I have sent out the grades
 
2.  Watch the quantum number lesson video and complete the form. This reviews the solutions to the Schrodinger equation that will allow us to determine the energy and relative positions of the electrons around the nucleus based on their quantum energy states.  All this means is that we will get electron configurations from the equation FROM the solutions to the Schrodinger equation.
 
Make sure you have completed your timeline before you begin this lecture.  This lecture about the values that we get from the Schrodinger equation that was “discovered over a weekend” that helped team Einstein (who was pitted against Team Bohr) have more of a visual model of the atom using standing waves of electrons in orbitals).  Remember that Team Bohr described the atom and its behavior entirely with mathematics and equations.  It is the solutions (quantum numbers) to the Schrodinger equation that have lead us to our current electron configuration of atoms that explains all of the chemical nature of atoms.
 
Remember electron configurations this summer?   Na:  1s22s22p63s1
This is the arrangement of electrons in an atom based on electrons existing in standing waves in a region called an orbitals. These orbitals are quantized and their arrangement is also based on its proximity to the nucleus, much like Bohrs first quantum model of the atoms with electrons moving in orbits.  Example:  3s electrons are farther away from the nucleus and have greater energy (unstable) than 1s electrons who are closer to the nucleus (more stable).  The difference to the Bohr model is that electrons are existing as standing waves in a particular geometry.  The basics of the Bohr model is still upheld (that is why he won a Nobel Prize for his first model).
You learned electron configurations this summer and did so without the rest of the atomic structure history and concepts.  We will re-vist electron configurations but will develop the concepts through quantum numbers!
 
Quantum number lecture:
 
I will have this auto- reply later..
Quantum number Form: 
 

Quantum Number form 2021

End of Thursday..

2/12  –  Friday –  “D” Day          – period 2,3 (Lab)  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                           – period 2,3 (Lab) –  R  2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
  
                                                         – period 4 – I  3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                         – period 4 – R 3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
The Blue team and the Orange team are Remote Today.
 

 

Period 2, Period 4:
 
Quantum Number form 1920 Key p.pdf
View Download
 
PLEASE PRINT THESE:
Quantum Numbers – worksheet 1.pdf
View Download
 
Atomic Structure 4b -Electron configuration.pdf
 
Electrons are arranged from lowest energy to higher energy = Aufbau Principle
 So they fill from lower n to higher n  and from lower energy orbitals (l) to higher energy orbitals. Electrons fill sublevels in order ( s,p,d,f).
 
Electron are arranged in n = principle energy levels
                                                    l  = sublevels
                                                 ms =  individual orbitals (actual 3 -d shape where pairs of electrons can exist)
 
Every Electron has a unique set of 4 quantum numbers (including spin msPauli Exclusion Principle
These quantum numbers describe how the electrons are arranged in the atom based on energy.
 
                                      The basic organization is principle energy level (n = 1, 2, 3, etc.) – “shell”
 
                                                                                     sublevel  (s,  p,  d,  f, ) – type of orbital and all of its orientations
                                                                                                   l = 0,  1,   2,  3
 
                                                                                      orbital (individual orbital of a single orientation of a sublevel)
                                                                                                        m= -l , 0, +l
This arrangement uses notation that describes the organization of the electrons in principle energy levels and sublevels. The exponent is the number of electrons in the TOTAL sublevel that includes all the orbitals of different orientation of the same sublevel.
 
s = 1 orbital   (l = 0, ml = 0)
p = 2 orbitals (l = 1, ml = -1,  0, +1)
d = 5 orbitals (l = 2, ml = -2, -1, 0, +1, +2)
f  = 7 orbitals (l  = 3, ml = -3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3)
g =  ?
 
Electron configuration of Al:           Nucleus:  1s22s22p63s23p1
 
Orbital notation for Al:
Each box represents a single orbital.
 
Which electrons are the most stable? Unstable?
*Connections – Our quantum numbers refer to specific energy levels allowable by each quantized element.  The arrangement of electrons in quantized energy orbitals that were solutions to the Erwin Schrodinger equation (quantum numbers) are actually hidden in the periodic table that was already arranged according these energy levels (unbeknownst to Mendeleev and Moseley!!) The periodic table that we use is a condensed version that does not insert the  f block ( l = 3) because it would not fit on most pages!!!!
 

 

 
1. Quantum Number review
2. Electron configurations and orbital notations
 
a) Need to go over writing configurations on worksheet opposite, d orbitals and f orbital shape.
b) Complex electron configurations, shorthand method
c) Extreme overlapping of Uranium
d) valence electrons, core electrons
 
 Atomic Structure 4b -Electron configuration.pdf
 
Atomic Structure 4b -Electron configuration key.pdf
View Download
Another very good animation that will review electron configuration :
Download file and open in Fire Fox.
 
ElectronConfiguration.html
Download
Period 3:
Ruben’s Tube Demo:
wave behavior demo: – Standing waves  animation- 
Ruben’s Tube demo complete – measure speed of sound in propane.
                                                       Beat frequency!
 
Absorption Demo:
 
Ruben’s Tube Demo explained  – Grodski
 
2/12  –  Friday –  “D” Day  Homework: It is written below in white.
 
 
             THERE IS NO HOMEWORK!
 
 

 

End of Week 2!