Select Page

Archive – Q3 week 3 – 19-20

Week of 2/10 – 2/14 – 

 

2/10 – Monday – period 2/3

1.  Homework review –  Hybridization 3 worksheet
 
Hybridization Form 3 – Key p.pdf
View Download
 
 a) sp3 worksheet reviewed for period 2/3 for molecular geometry of tetrahedral family:
            how tetrahydral looks in 2D vs 3D, NH3 and Water
 
       b) sp3 worksheet (non sp3 – carbon – hydrogen bonds) = polarity
 
       c) Ethane, Ethene, Ethyne comparison – when double and triple bonds can occur
           Complete backside – 
sp3 hybridization key p.pdf
View Download
 
Ethane, Ethene, Ethyne Comparison worksheet key p.pdf
View Download
     
2. Bonding presentation: 12 – 29:
 
    a) conducting electricity demo ionic/molecular
 
    b) Molecular polarity demo
   
    c) partial charges, dipole moments, overall dipole moment =
         need to show slide polar slide in bonding demo
         Bond polarity/molecule polarity PHET
 
3. Complete the polarity discussion with 
 
    a) showing overall dipole moments for the molecules in the homework 
    b) Polyatomic ion – Table E in presentation Lewis structures (model a couple)
    c) Identify hybridization and lewis structures that are PERIODICALLY similar. 
    
    e) Bond Energy – Bond Energy and Bond length discussion with table below:
Carbon – Carbon bonds, electronegativity in HF, HCl, HBr, HI. Why is HI strongest acid?
 
 – WATER VS CARBON DIOXIDE – The meaning of Life!
 
 used the PHET animation below to show the polarity, dipole moments of a 3 carbon system, linear first then bent with outside with same high EN. I compared that with COlewis dot structure and molecular orbital sketch to illustrate how we can determine polarity by understanding geometry of orbitals. Especially the fact that central lone pairs will cause the linear structure to bend.  Also pi bonding and sigma binding review.
Bond Energy and length data:  
Bond energy = the energy needed to break bonds = Bonds are stable thus Bond energy is always positive.
 
Bond length = distance between nuclei of atoms in a bond. 
                              Stronger the bond, stronger the attraction to the electrons between the bonded atoms and
                              this will lead to a shorter bond length.
 
                                   Stronger the BOND Energy the shorter the BOND length!
     π (pi) bonding occurs with every multiple bond between 2 atoms but it does not double or triple the bond 
energy because π bonding contains electron density that IS NOT between 2 nuclei.  I often describe π 
bonding as bonds that are perpendicular to the 2 nuclei that are simultaneously attracting the electrons. 
This is weaker than if the electrons are located exactly between the 2 nuclei in σ (sigma) bonding.
                            period 4 – 
 
1.  Homework review –  Hybridization 3 worksheet
 
Hybridization Form 3 – Key p.pdf
View Download
 
2. Continued on backside of the sp, sp2, sp3 comparison worksheet.
     focus was on polar, non-polar molecules, with partial charges and dipole moment!
 
3.  bond length
 
 
 a) sp3 worksheet reviewed for period 2/3 for molecular geometry of tetrahedral family:
            how tetrahydral looks in 2D vs 3D, NH3 and Water
 
       b) sp3 worksheet (non sp3 – carbon – hydrogen bonds) = polarity
 
       c) Ethane, Ethene, Ethyne comparison – when double and triple bonds can occur
 
Bonding presentation to slide 19 – polar bonds, non- polar bonds, ionic
 
   
      

Bonding:

Bonding

Lattice Energy:

Lattice Energy – Born Haber Cycle

PHET – Polar molecules animation – 
2/10 – Monday Homework – Formal Charge
 
Formal charges/ resonance – 
1: We use formal charges to evaluate lewis structures so that we pick the most stable and realistic structure.  THIS IS WHAT TONIGHT’s HOMEWORK is on!
 
2: In resonance the formal charges will be the same for all elements except that they will be in different locations.  
3: Formal charges will  help verify the overall charge on polyatomic ions
1. Please view the lecture below on formal charges on the first side ONLY of the Formal Charges with Chlorate geometry 1718.pdf worksheet.
 
Formal Charges with Chlorate geometry 1718.pdf
View Download
Formal Charges with Chlorate geometry 1718 key p.pdf
View Download
 
Classroom lecture on Formal Charges: 
 
2:  Please complete the Hybridization identification worksheet  1617.pdf
and review with key below:
 
I made a mistake in the key.  The carbon not highlighted in Ibuprofen should be sp3 .  
Thanks Ashley! 
 
Also NO3-1   has a molecular geometry that is trigonal planar!
Hybridization identification worksheet 1617.pdf
View Download
 
Hybridization identification worksheet key p 1617.pdf
View Download
 
 
3. Complete the form below:
 
 
End of Monday!

2/11 – Tuesday –  
Formal Charge Notes:
 
*Formal Charges will help us determine how many double bonded oxygen in more advanced structures (chlorate structures). we keep adding the double bonds till the central atom will become a formal charge of zero.  Remember that Formal Charges are “bookkeeping values”  that help us determine the most accurate Lewis Structure.  They are part of this valence bond theory that is not perfect in explaining or predicting the properties of all molecules but without experimental data you  MUST follow formal charge rules:
 
1: Best Lewis Structure will have the more atoms at or near zero (atoms are using their valence electrons in the drawn Lewis structures).
 
2.  If given a choice the most Electronegative Atom will have a negative value (that atom will gain the electron because of its larger coulombic attractions for electrons).
 
3.  If the formal charges stay constant for different Lewis Structures for the same molecule or ion then you have Resonance.
 
               Period 2 – 
1.  Review Hybridization  4 Form!
 
Hybridization Form 4 – Key p.pdf
View Download
 
Hybridization identification worksheet key p 1617.pdf
View Download
2.  Complete NO3-1 polyatomic i0n lewis structure and discuss resonance and introduce Bond Order.
                 Bond Order =     All the bonds in a molecule (pair of electrons between atoms)
                                                    All the regions in the Lewis Dot Diagram that have bonds.
 
Molecules with resonant structures have Bond orders that are decimals to show that the electrons are are delocalized throughout the entire molecule!!  This adds a little extra bond energy in every domain!
 
3. Expanded octets – Started back side of Formal Charges with Chlorate geometry 1718.pdf in class.
     add Bond orders, formal charge/ resonance 17 – 21 slides in Resonance Presentation
 
Formal Charges with Chlorate geometry 1718 key p.pdf
View Download
Benzene, C6H6 that has resonance :
                               
 
Anyone remember the Aspirin Lab?
 
                             – period 3/4
 
1.  Review Hybridization  4 Form!
 
Hybridization Form 4 – Key p.pdf
View Download
 
Hybridization identification worksheet key p 1617.pdf
View Download
2.  Complete NO3-1 polyatomic i0n lewis structure and discuss resonance and introduce Bond Order.
                 Bond Order =     All the bonds in a molecule (pair of electrons between atoms)
                                                    All the regions in the Lewis Dot Diagram that have bonds.
 
Molecules with resonant structures have Bond orders that are decimals to show that the electrons are are delocalized throughout the entire molecule!!  This adds a little extra bond energy in every domain!
 
3. Expanded octets – completeD back side of Formal Charges with Chlorate geometry 1718.pdf in class.
     add Bond orders, formal charge/ resonance 17 – 21 slides in Resonance Presentation
 
Formal Charges with Chlorate geometry 1718 key p.pdf
View Download
 
4. Benzene above:
 
5. Expanded octet Hybridization – 
 
2/11 Tuesday Homework:  – Surprise Quiz tomorrow!
 
Surprise quiz (unless you read this on writing lewis diagrams, formal charge, resonance, polarity, bond angles, hybridization, pi and sigma bonds, Mandarin)
 
1.  Period 2 students need to complete the backside of the the Formal charge worksheet by viewing the Chlorate/Chlorate Geometry Lecture posted below:
EVERYONE:
2: Watch the Hybridization lecture – sp3d, sp3d lecture below:
 
3:  Then complete  the Hybridization identification worksheet 2 expanded octets.pdf and start this worksheet with another video that models the first few chemicals and then review with the key.
Use my lecture and the handouts I gave out today to figure out the new geometries of the 2 NEW hybrid familes!
Expanded octet geometry comparison chart.pdf
View Download
 
Bonding Tables – molecular geometry and Hybridization p.pdf

View Download

Hybridization identification worksheet 2 expanded octets.pdf
View Download
 
Hybridization identification worksheet 2 expanded octets.pdf KEY.pdf
View Download
 
Tonight’s Lectures:
Chlorate/Chlorate Geometry Lecture (backside of last night’s homework):
  This is what we did in class on the backside of the Formal Charges with Chlorate geometry 1718.pdf  worksheet.
 
Hybridization lecture – sp3d, sp3d :
 
Lecture that models a few of the chemicals in the 
Hybridization identification worksheet 2 expanded octets.pdf worksheet:
End of Tuesday!

2/12 – Wednesday – period 2/3
 
1.  Review Chlorate geometries (resonance structures) using Formal Charges.
1.  Chlorate geometry review – last structure from backside, formal charges tell us when to stop adding oxygens which make the formal charges of oxygen zero (which is preferred!).  Bond order of resonant structures?
Resonant structures have delocalization!!!   Model sulfate!  
 
Quick run through Bonding presentation –  ( slides 1 – 48) or polyatomic and resonance presentation.
Formal Charges with Chlorate geometry 1718 key p.pdf
View Download
2. complete the Potential Energy Internuclear distance Diagram
Use diagram to explain Bond Energy and Bond Length with chart posted above
 
Potential Energy Internuclear distance Diagram.pdf
Although we say the bond angles of any sp3 hybridized molecule is 109.5 degrees that is not entirely true as the “Internuclear Distance of the electron lone pair will decrease if there is not a nucleus pulling it away from the central hybridized atom.   The hybrid orbitals that contain the lone pair(s) are thus closer to the other hybrid orbitals and thus these hybrid orbitals repel the bonded hybrid orbitals into a smaller angle.
 
Notice the water, with 2 lone pairs, decreases the bond angle more (105)than one lone pair of ammonia (107).  You do not need to know the exact bond angles of molecular geometries for the lone pair molecules but be aware of this and why.
 
3.  Take Surprise Quiz – 
 
4.  VSEPR (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion ) Balloons – Grodski Balloon expanded octets hybridization      
      demo and lewis diagram demo.
 
– period 4
1. complete the Potential Energy Internuclear distance Diagram
Use diagram to explain Bond Energy and Bond Length with chart posted above
 
Potential Energy Internuclear distance Diagram.pdf
 
2.  Lone pair VSEPR bond angle decreasing- see above diagram
3. Surprise Quiz – 
Extra resource on Formal Charges:
 
VSEPR Grodski Balloons:
https://youtu.be/i3FCHVlSZc4
            
PHET Animation: VSEPR Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory
 
TRY ME with expanded octets!


2/12 – Wednesday Homework:
 
1:  Review your quiz with me in the lecture below or the key below:
          
molecular model quiz B Key p.pdf
View Download
 
Blank of today’s quiz:
molecular model quiz B .pdf
View Download
2. Here is another Practice Quiz to practice on with a key and video to review.
       
Molecular model quiz – Mock 1718 key.pdf
View Download
 
Molecular model quiz – Mock 1718.pdf
View Download
 
3. Study for Bonding Test Tomorrow – (Slides 1 – 48 on Bonding presentation)
 
 
Thursday Test Topics – 
 
Lewis Diagrams (molecules and polyatomic ions), determining Hybridization (sp, sp2 , sp3)  electron domain geometry, molecular geometry, bond angles, polarity, drawing orbital sketches
 
Sigma, pi bonds, 
Bond order (total bonds / places that can have bonds).
 
Formal Charges to determine the best lewis diagram, lattice energy 
There will be NO sp3d or sp3d2 on the 1st bonding test.
 
THERE WILL BE NO
 
        a) Expanded octets with sp3d,and sp3d2 hybridization
        b) A POLYATOMIC ion like the chlorate geometry worksheet –
        
        c) Dipole moments –  Slide 22 – 34 – 
 
        d) Potential Energy Internuclear distance Diagram – 
                                                                                   
But these extra topics will be included on Monday’s test.
 
Hybridization worksheets:
 
(2 unhybridized p left)
        triple bonds possible = 2 

 Hybridization review sp, sp2 and sp3:

 Hybridization Comparison Chart Intro.pdf

 Lecture on the  Ethane, Ethene, Ethyne Comparison.pdf worksheet:

 Ethane, Ethene, Ethyne Comparison.pdf

 
Ethane, Ethene, Ethyne Comparison worksheet key p.pdf
View Download
Orbital Sketch Lecture:
 
I demonstrate how to sketch the orbital diagrams of the following molecules (non-expanded octets):
 
CH4,   CH3F,   PCl3,   H2S,   C2F6,   C2Cl4,   C2H2,   CO2
Link to Lattice Energy Presentation.
 
End of Wednesday..

2/13 – Thursday – period 2
 
1.  Bonding Test 1 –  1 period test
                                     period 3/4 – 
 
1.  VSEPR (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion ) Balloons – Grodski Balloon expanded octets hybridization      
      demo and lewis diagram demo.
 
2.  Give back Periodicity TEsts!
 
3. Bonding Test 1 – 
 
                           
2/13 – Thursday Homework: Friday’s test is the best out of 2!!!!
 
1: I will grade and send you your test through email. I will link the key in powerschool.
 
I have emailed all graded tests back!
 
2:  Please watch the review video that I will post that will go over the test THAT YOU TOOK TODAY!.
 
3.  Bonding Test 2 –  FRIDAY (tomorrow!) will be on the same material INCLUDING RESONANCE, Expanded Octets , sp3d. sp3d2, and formal charges. Review the expanded octet diagram worksheet.   REVIEW the quizzes and the bonding test 1!!
 
4.  Review concepts of dipole moments.  The greatest difference in Electronegativity.
 
 
Bonding Test 1 review video:  – The key IS NOW posted in Power school.
 
                                                       
 
Tomorrow’s test will have the same material PLUS
 
        a) Expanded octets with sp3d,and sp3d2 hybridization
        b) A POLYATOMIC ion like the chlorate geometry worksheet –
        
        c) Dipole moments –  Slide 22 – 34 – 
                                                                                 
        d) Potential Energy Internuclear distance Diagram –
 
Potential Energy Internuclear distance Diagram.pdf
View Download
 
 
Formal Charges with Chlorate geometry 1718.pdf
View Download
Formal Charges with Chlorate geometry 1718 key p.pdf
View Download
 
Lecture on the Chlorate geometry: 
 
 
 
Dipole, Resonance, polarity review:  Slide 22 – 34
 

Resonance Presentation and Formal Charges

sp3d and sp3d2 hybridization resources are posted above
End of Thursday!!


2/14 – Friday – period 2/3 – Happy Vanadium Day! – Will you be my isotope?
 
 
1.  Give Back Periodicity Tests!
 
2. Bonding 2 Test!
                               period 4 – 
 
1. Bonding 2 Test!
 
 
2/14 – Friday Homework:  
 
ENJOY THE BREAK!!!!   WE have earned it!
Whew!!!!! End of week 3!