Select Page

Archive – Q3 week 4 – 20 – 21

Week of 3/1 – 3/5 –   Remember to Refresh this page every time you open!

Please Refresh every time you open– this page is changing often!
 
The 4 day – A, B, C, D cycle looks like this:
                                                       Day                               Period
                                                                           2                       3                       4       
                
                                      In class:                          Lab                   Lab               Single Class
                                   Remote:                          Lab                   Lab               Single Class
 
          Monday             In class:         B          Single Class        LAB                   LAB
                                                          Remote:                     Single Class        LAB                   LAB
 
                                         In class:              C          Single Class              LAB                    LAB
                                   Remote:                     Single Class        LAB                    LAB
 
                                        In class:          D               Lab                   Lab              Single Class
                                   Remote:                            Lab                   Lab              Single Class
                 
 
This weeks 5 day Schedule:
3/1  –  Monday –  “B” Day         period 2,  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                            -period 2, –  R   2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
                                                            -period 3,4 (LAB) – I   3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                            -period 3,4 (LAB) – R  3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
3/2  –  Tuesday –  “C” Day           – period 2, –  I    2(A,C) 3(A)  AP CHEMISTRY
                                                             – period 2, –  R   2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
                
                                                           -period 3,4 (LAB) – I.  3(C) 4(A,C) AP CHEMISTRY 
                                                           -period 3,4 (LAB) – R  3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
3/3  –  Wednesday –  “D” Day    – period 2,3 (Lab)  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                           – period 2,3 (Lab) –  R  2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
  
                                                         – period 4 – I  3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                         – period 4 – R 3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
3/4  – Thursday –  “A” Day           – period 2,3 (Lab) –     2(A,C) 3(A)  AP CHEMISTRY
                                                           – period 2,3 (Lab) –  R   2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
                                                             – period 4 – I   3(C) 4(A,C) AP CHEMISTRY 
                                                             – period 4 – R  3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
3/5  – Friday –  “B” Day         period 2,  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                            -period 2, –  R   2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
                                                            -period 3,4 (LAB) – I   3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                            -period 3,4 (LAB) – R  3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION

 
3/1  –  Monday –  “B” Day            period 2,  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                            -period 2, –  R   2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
                                                            -period 3,4 (LAB) – I   3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                            -period 3,4 (LAB) – R  3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
The Blue Team and the Orange Team are remote today.
1.  Review of the PES Form- 
 
PES – Photon Emission Spectroscopy Form – key p.pdf
View Download
2.  Properties of transitional metals-
      a) Diamagnetism/Paramagetism  8-3,8-54 to 8-56 slides in powerpoint 1
      b) colored solutions; Crystal field Theory
      c) MULTIPLE VALENCE ELECTRONS from 2 different energy levels!
3.  Isoelectric series – 
Electron Config and Periodicity worksheet 4.pdf
 
Electron Configuration worksheet 4 Key p.pdf
View Download
4. Periodic Trends Lab 20? – 
File needed:

Periodic Trends Excel 3 graphs 2012 student file.xlsx

Periodic table Trends Lab 20 – activity instructions: 
 
Please fill out the Ionization energy, Atomic Radii, and Electronegativity graph using table S of the OLD regents reference tables.
 
2011 edition reference tables.pdf
View Download
 
– Table S of the Regents Reference tables contains the values for First Ionization EnergyElectronegativity, and Atomic Radii. Please make 3 graphs by using my excel file above (it will make a line graph and a 3d graph) of the three trends.  All you have to do is enter the values in the spreadsheet up to atomic # 54 (Xe) for the three Periodic Trends.  Please cut and past the 3 linear graphs into doc that you can print and follow the instructions below:
 
Electronegativity that measures how much an atom attracts electrons IN A BOND.  It really is a value that combines Z, Zeff, and n. You will notice that the Nobel Gases (last column on the periodic table) do not have Electronegativity values because they do not bond so their attraction to electrons in a bond cannot be measured.
Elements with dashes in the table have zero values.
 
For the Electronegativity and Atomic Radii Graphs please Identify the elements that belong to the Alkali family (group 1), Alkaline Earth (Group 2), Halogens (Group 17), and the Noble gases (group 18).
 
For the First IONIZATION ENERGY GRAPH:
 
Please write and discuss every element who bucks the trend on the word document that you pasted the line graph for ionization. Remember that ionization energy is a measure of stability. Use your knowledge of Z, Zeff, n, and electron – electron interactions to justify why some atoms or groups of atoms are not following the trend (IE going up as you move across a period and IE decreasing as you move down a group). Please number and bullet each point.  There may be a group of elements that may not be following the trend. Please discuss them as well.
 
Graded as a lab activity. 
PES: atomic structure 2 presentation slides 47 – 53.
Todays Presentation for PES – Photon Emission Spectroscopy: 

Photoelectron Spectroscopy ‎(PES)‎ basics

 
Mystery element from PES data:
 
3/1  –  Monday –  “B” Day – Homework:   – Study for Atomic structure / Periodicity Test
1. Study for the test by reviewing the Keys to the following materials we have 
    used throughout the unit.
Atomic structure 2 – bohrs.pdf

View Download

 
atomic structure 2 – Bohr Key p.pdf

View Download

Photoelectric Effect – Form Key.pdf
View Download
 
atomic structure 3 – de Broglie Key.pdf
 
Atomic structure 3 – de Broglie.pdf

View Download

 
 
Quantum Number form 1920 Key p.pdf
Atomic Structure 4b -Electron configuration.pdf
 
Atomic Structure 4b -Electron configuration key.pdf
View Download
 
Electron Config and Periodicity worksheet .pdf
Electron configuration worksheet 1 Key p.pdf
View Download
 
Electron Config and Periodicity worksheet 3.pdf
 
Electron Configuration worksheet 3 Key p.pdf
View Download
 
PES – Photon Emission Spectroscopy Form – key p.pdf
View Download
 
2. Study for the test.  Posted study materials are in the Atomic structure page in quarter 2:
need a new link here..
3. Complete the Atomic Structure/ Periodicity Test Review Form:
 
Fix errors :  Bohr, question 2 middle z row
 
End of Monday..

3/2  –  Tuesday –  “C” Day           – period 2, –  I    2(A,C) 3(A)  AP CHEMISTRY
                                                             – period 2, –  R   2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
                
                                                           -period 3,4 (LAB) – I.  3(C) 4(A,C) AP CHEMISTRY 
                                                           -period 3,4 (LAB) – R  3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
The Red team and the Green team are remote today.
 
Period 2: 
 
1. Start Atomic Structure / Periodicity / Electron configuration Test  – Part 1
 
Period 3,4:
 
1. Lab 20 – Periodic Trends Review –  Due Friday
 
2. Start Atomic Structure / Periodicity / Electron configuration Test  – Part 1
                            
3/2  –  Tuesday –  “C” Day  – Homework:
1. Complete the Part 1 of the test using the google doc that was sent to you this morning. 
    It is due at 4:30 am Wednesday morning.
 
The Red Team and the Orange Team will be taking Part II in class tomorrow individually.
 
The Blue Team and the Green Team will be taking Part II in class Thursday individually.

3/3  –  Wednesday –  “D” Day    – period 2,3 (Lab)  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                           – period 2,3 (Lab) –  R  2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
  
                                                         – period 4 – I  3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                         – period 4 – R 3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
The Blue and Orange team are Remote today.
 
Periodic Trends:
Period 2, Period 4:
1. Metals vs. Nonmetals using the Periodic trends 3-D graph.
– marked a periodic table with metals, nonmetals, and metalloids     
– Defined metals and nonmetals based atomic radii, electronegativity and Ionization Energy
– started ionic bonding
 
Blank periodic table with REference Periodic Table 1213.pdf
View Download
3.  Born- Haber Lattice Energy
4. Ionic Bonding – naming /honeymooners
 
5.  Covalent Bonding setup..
Support Materials for Periodic Table development- 

Alkali Reactivity

Bonding

Lattice Energy – Born Haber Cycle

                                      
Period 3:
 
Lab 20 – Periodic Trends Review –  Due Friday
 
1: Periodic Table development 
            Tom Lehr
            Alkali reactivity
            atom shack
 
2.  Ionic vs. Covalent bonds properties – review covalent and ionic Lewis Diagrams.
3. hybridization (sp) explanation/ molecular diagrams
Family of elements – same valence electrons
– alkali metals – group 1 – 1 valence electrons —————> all become +1 ions
– alkaline earth metals – group 2  – 2 valence electrons—–> all become +2 ions
– halogens – group 17 – 7 valence electrons ——————->all become -1 ions
– noble gas – group 18 – 8 valence electrons ——————> most do not become ions
 
– Periodic trends:  atomic radii, and Ionization Energy,  
    AND Electronegativity = attractions for other elements electrons.
    Electronegativity is really a term that combines (Z, Zeff, and n).  It is easier to describe an elements attraction 
    for other atoms electrons IN A BOND!  The electronegativity scale for all elements (0 – 4) has been determined  
    for all elements.  Fluorine has the highest (4.0) and Cesium has the lowest (.8).  
    
    *The Noble Gases do not have a value for electronegativity ( 0 ) because they do not form bonds and it cannot be       measured.  You will notice in your periodic table that Kr and Xe do have small electronegativity values and well        as possible oxidation states due to their small reactivity due to the larger n!
 
– completed the alkali reactivity presentation with the reaction between Cs and F.
 
3/3  –  Wednesday –  “D” Day Homework:
1.  Please watch the lecture below that reviews both types of bonding and how to complete the lewis diagrams for each.
 
2. Complete the back side of the ionic bonding worksheet. Review with the key.
 
Ionic ditto 1 -Electron Dot Diagrams .pdf
View Download
 
Ionic ditto 1 -Electron Dot Diagrams KEY.pdf
View Download
3. Please complete the 1st column of electron dot diagrams for covalent compounds on the backside of the covalent worksheet and review with the key.
Covalent ditto 1 -Electron Dot Diagrams .pdf
View Download
 
Covalent ditto 1 – Electron Dot Diagrams key .pdf
View Download

End of Wednesday..


3/4  – Thursday –  “A” Day           – period 2,3 (Lab) –     2(A,C) 3(A)  AP CHEMISTRY
                                                             – period 2,3 (Lab) –  R   2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
                                                             – period 4 – I   3(C) 4(A,C) AP CHEMISTRY 
                                                             – period 4 – R  3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
The Red Team and the Green Team are Remote today.
 
Period 2, Period 4:
1.  Part 1 Review of the Test – 
 
Blue Team and Orange Team:
1. Complete Atomic Structure / Periodicity / Electron configuration Test – Part 2 – In class
 
2. Covalent Bonds/ Ionic Bonds contrast – Play presentation with crystals
 
Period 3:
 
1. Lattice Energy – Born- Haber Cycle
 
2. More advanced Lewis Structures  – 2nd column in homework
 
        –  Intro to polarity (bond and bond)
 
3.  Hybridization – sp begins
 

Bonding

Lattice Energy – Born Haber Cycle

 
 
3/4  – Thursday –  “A” Day – Homework– 
1. Watch lecture 1 up to 8:05 only.
 
2. Watch the 2nd lecture entirely and follow along with me using the worksheet below.
We will be learning the following.
 
a) sigma bonding
b) pi bonding
c)  sp hybridization
d) lewis dot diagrams
e) polarity
 
YOU WILL BE DRAWING THE MOLECULAR ORBITALS. THEY ARE A PAIN INITIALLY BUT IF YOU CAN LEARN HOW TO DO THIS FOR HYBRIDIZED MOLECULES THEN YOU WILL TRULY UNDERSTAND!
SP hybridization.pdf
View Download
SP hybridization KEY p.pdf
View Download

3. Then read Grodski Notes below!
 
4. Complete Form below.
 
1st  lectureWatch up to 8:05 of the this one first:

 

2nd LecturePlease watch this video in its entirety.
Tonight’s form (3 total submissions tonight):

Hybridization Form 1 – 2021

 

For those needing more basic review of covalent lewis structures:
 We did this in AP Biology and in the Summer institute or in Regents Chemistry but this is a refresher.
Chemistry text on bonding (page 18 starts hybridization): if want more resources…
Grodski Notes – (from my textbook!) – 
 
We have been learning a valence bond theory that explains almost all the experimental data that we obtain in terms of bond angle (x-ray crystallography), bond energies, and polarity for molecules (covalently bonded particles).  We can predict very successfully the above listed properties of molecules by just putting dots on a piece of paper and writing Lewis structures, using VSEPR theory (how electrons in orbitals repel each other to find a stable shape), and utilizing the concepts of hybridization theory.  Remember Hybridization it is just a theory that explains how molecules achieve the known experimental data, using our known understanding of electrons acting in waves in atomic orbitals.  Think that the atomic orbitals that we have learned BECOME new orbitals when they bond.  This should make sense as electrons act as waves and should constructively interfere with other orbitals of atoms they bond with.
 
Remember that we use the hybridization theory for central atoms BECAUSE we need to!!! The bond angles and bond energy that we predict for using the different atomic orbitals of the central atom cannot be explained unless we believe that these valence orbital mix or hybridize!!!
 
Lets take a look at the BeF2 orbital sketch below.  BeF needs to be sp hybridized to explain its linear structure that we know experimentally.  In order for it to bond on BOTH SIDES YOU NEED 2 separate orbitals and the 2 central sp hybridized orbitals in the central Be allow for this.  Notice the terminal F atoms do not need hybridization to explain their terminal bonding. All they are doing is filling their outermost 2p orbital.  Remember unhybridized p orbitals cannot bond on both side since EACH P orbital hold 2 electrons and if it bonding on one side it is now full. This is why each F atom on the outside does not have any electrons on the outer porbital BECAUSE it full due to the covalent bonding with the central Be sp hybrid orbitals. Figure 2 below highlights the px orbital from the F atom illustrating that the right and left side ( of each dumbell ) is the same orbital orbital which is now full due to the bonding with central atom (Be).
figure 1
 

*the 2s orbital is drawn much smaller than the 2p to help view the overlap of orbitals in covalent bonds.

 
Notice that the central atom has 2 Be – F bonds and they measured in strength called bond enthalpy. These bond enthalpy’s (the energy needed to break a bond) have been determined experimentally to be the same. If there was no hybridization then they would not be the same as one electron in a 2s orbital of Be would bind with one F while another electron in the 2p would bond with the other F.  Because an s orbital is more stable than a p orbital, a bond in the s orbital would have a higher Bond Enthalpy (much like a more stable orbital has a higher IE!).
 
Do not lose site that these orbital diagrams are just visualizations of what we think the new bonding arrangement of of atoms joined together by using each other to fill orbitals (bonding) looks like.  You can see that the solutions to the Schrodinger equation gives a way to explain the bonding between atoms visually. Remember that these orbitals are wave functions that represent electrons in standing waves or in electron density probabilities.
figure 2
Now you will notice the direct overlap between the F atoms px orbital and the Be sp hybrid orbital so that 2 electrons are shared between each orbital.  This type of bonding of sharing valence electrons to fill valence orbitals is called covalent bonding.  The type of covalent bonding that has a direct overlap of orbitals is called sigma (𝞼) bonds. We also learned about the second type of bonds called pi (π) bonds that occur with UNHYBRIDIZED p orbitals of the central atom with unhybridized p orbitals of the non central orbitals. Notice that Be ONLY had a 2s and 1 2p orbital that hybridized and there we no other electrons in the 2p so there ARE NO CENTRAL unhybridized p orbitals for the central atom this molecule does not have any π bonding. π bonding will only occur as the second or the third bond but never as a bond on its own.
 
End of Thursday..

3/5  – Friday –  “B” Day               period 2,  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                            -period 2, –  R   2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
                                                            -period 3,4 (LAB) – I   3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                            -period 3,4 (LAB) – R  3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
The Blue and the Orange Team are Remote today.
Period 2, Period 3:
1. Quick Review of the Test – 
RED Team and Green Team:
2. Complete Atomic Structure / Periodicity / Electron configuration Test – Part 2 – In class
 
3. sp hybridization 
Period 4: 
 
3. sp hybridization  – 
 
 
3/5  – Friday –  “B” Day – Homework – 
In the sp2 hybridized structures that we will learn about tonight, we will see that electron domain geometry will not always be the same as the molecular geometry.  
 
Electron domain geometry is the shape of the (bonded and non-bonded) electrons that surround the central atom 
 
while the 
 
Molecular geometry is the shape of where the atoms are bonded around the central atom independent of the electrons.  This means that we do not consider the lone electrons but only the atoms. Be careful here.  The electrons surrounding the central atoms (bonded or non- bonded) determine the hybridization and the general shape of the hybridized family.  Electrons repel themselves in the central atom to find the most stable structure, (VSEPR theory) but we only look at where the atoms are positioned in bonds around the central atom to determine the shape of the molecule. 
 
In the sp hybridized family (Wednesday’s homework), the electron domain geometry ALWAYS was the same as the molecular geometry because the sp molecular shape are always linear BECAUSE THERE ARE NO LONE ELECTRONS to repel the electrons in the central atom.  Because there can be no lone pairs in the central atom for sp hybridization the shape will always be linear for the bonded electrons and the atoms that are bonded to these electrons. 
 
Take a look at the diagram below to view how the sp2 family has a molecular geometry that is different from the  electron domain geometry for one of the possible geometries of molecules that are sp2 hybridized.  Keep in mind that the sphybridized molecules have one shape where the electron domain geometry and the molecular geometry are the same (trigonal planar) but also has one other shape where they are not the same (unlike the sp hybridization family).
 
This will be made clear in tonight’s lecture.
1. make one more submission to last nights form! The second to last row of the last question had an issue and was not graded last night. It has been changed and it will now count.
2.  Please watch the lecture on sp2 and follow along with me with worksheet below and complete the Hybridization Form 2 Below:
sP2 hybridization.pdf
SP2 hybridization KEY p.pdf
View Download
sp2  Hybridization Lecture: 
 
Complete the sp2 Hybridization Form:
 

Hybridization Form 2

 

 
End of Week 4!