Select Page

Archive – Q3 week 8 – 20 – 21

Week of 4/5 – 4/9 – PLEASE REFRESH EVERY TIME!

Please Refresh every time you open– this page is changing often!
The 4 day – A, B, C, D cycle looks like this:
                                                       Day                               Period
                                                                           2                       3                       4       
                
                                   In class:                          Lab                   Lab               Single Class
                                   Remote:                          Lab                   Lab               Single Class
 
     Monday              In class:         B          Single Class        LAB                   LAB
                                                          Remote:                     Single Class        LAB                   LAB
 
                                               In class:              C          Single Class              LAB                    LAB
                                   Remote:                     Single Class        LAB                    LAB
 
                                       In class:          D               Lab                   Lab              Single Class
                                   Remote:                            Lab                   Lab              Single Class
                 
This weeks 5 day Schedule:
4/5  – Monday –  “B” Day  period 2,  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                  -period 2, –  R   2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
                                                   -period 3,4 (LAB) – I   3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                   -period 3,4 (LAB) – R  3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
4/6  –  Tuesday –  “C” Day   – period 2, –  I    2(A,C) 3(A)  AP CHEMISTRY
                                                    – period 2, –  R   2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
                
                                                           -period 3,4 (LAB) – I.  3(C) 4(A,C) AP CHEMISTRY 
                                                           -period 3,4 (LAB) – R  3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
4/7  –  Wednesday –  “D” Day    – period 2,3 (Lab)  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                             – period 2,3 (Lab) –  R  2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
  
                                                             – period 4 – I  3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                             – period 4 – R 3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
4/8  – Thursday –  “A” Day           – period 2,3 (Lab) –     2(A,C) 3(A)  AP CHEMISTRY
                                                        – period 2,3 (Lab) –  R   2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
                                                          – period 4 – I   3(C) 4(A,C) AP CHEMISTRY 
                                                          – period 4 – R  3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
4/9  – Friday –  “B” Day             period 2,  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                          -period 2, –  R   2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
                                                            -period 3,4 (LAB) – I   3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                            -period 3,4 (LAB) – R  3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION

4/5  – Monday –  “B” Day  period 2,  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                  -period 2, –  R   2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
                                                   -period 3,4 (LAB) – I   3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                   -period 3,4 (LAB) – R  3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
Zoom Link:
Topic: AP Chemistry – 04.05 – Periods 2,3,4
Time: Apr 5, 2021 08:00 AM Eastern Time (US and Canada)
Join Zoom Meeting
https://us02web.zoom.us/j/88565086256?pwd=Nm9JQlpkakFuTmZ2MjZzclpmMTkrQT09
Meeting ID: 885 6508 6256
Passcode: y1xazU
One tap mobile
+16465588656,,88565086256#,,,,*701372# US (New York)
 
1. Lets review the Free Response Question from the homework:
AP Chem 2016 ques 1 AP Key.pdf
 
2.  Homework Form Review:
 
Heat of Dissolution, Bond Enthalpy Form – Key- P.pdf
View Download
        
             – Some hints that you may have missed in homework:
 
                A)
                                  Exothermic reactions can be reported 2 ways:
 
                                                                                       A   +   C  —>  AC   +   40. kJ
                               
                                                                                   A   +   C  —>  AC    ∆H = –40. kJ
 
                               *Notice the heat or energy is written in the product side of the reaction to show 
                                 that there is a NET release of energy.
            
                                 Endothermic reactions can be reported 2 ways:
 
                                                                            40. kJ  +   AC  —>  A   +   C
 
                                                                                                 AC  —>  A   +   C   ∆H = +40. kJ
 
                               *Notice the heat or energy is written in the reactant side of the reaction to show 
                                 there is a NET absorption of energy.
 
                B) Careful with what you are discussing in terms of bonds or IMF in dissolution/ionization reactions.
                
                C) Solving for the q of a reaction and calculation the heat released is not the same.  It just how it is worded.
                      
                                                                q =   HEAT  for exothermic reactions 
 
                                                                    the negative means released (direction)
                                                                    HEAT is positive value so if I ask for the heat released I am  
                                                                 looking for the absolute value of the q as I am already implying
                                                                 the negative sign by saying released.
 
                                                                Its the same if I ask for the decrease in temperature. You still give                                                                    me a positive temperature.
 
3.  Today we start our discussion towards the Second Law of Thermodynamics:
     Please read through my notes regarding the 3* Laws of Thermodynamics below.
 
 
Class notes: Some people have expressed that they like the written notes even if there are a some grammatical errors!
 
Today’s Notes:
 
0th Law:  Hold unto your seats, this will be revealed in the lectures below!!
 
1st Law:         ∆Esys = –∆Esurr    –  Law of Conservation Mass – Uplifting Law!!!
 
Because of this law it seems that we should be able to create 100% efficient engines and possibly perpetual energy systems that recycle energy forever!!!  Uplifting Law!
 
2nd Law:       ∆Suniv > 0  – Dispersion of Heat –  “What a Bummer Law!”
                                                          disorder of energy 
                                  
                               ∆S = entropy!  Is it enthalpy (∆H)???  Noooo!  Its ENTROPY (∆S) !!!!!!!!!
The second Law tell us that entropy ∆S of the universe must increase for a spontaneous process.
 
Entropy is the movement of concentrated energy (free energy) to less concentrated energy and thus we cannot create any pathway we desire for energy. Because of this the amount of concentrated (free energy) must move  (disperse) to less concentrated areas of Energy.  A lot teachers will discuss entropy as the change of the disorder of a system, surroundings or total universe (system + surroundings universe) but technically that is not completely true as it is really about the change of the disorder of the energy (dispersion of energy).  Changes in overall disorder do parallel the energy dispersion (spreading out of the energy) so overall disorder explanations do work but to truly understand entropy you need to think about ∆S as the change in the dispersion of energy.
 
3rd law:   S˚ (absolute entropy of chemical) = Zero at 0 Kelvin “We are limited by 0 K !”
 
This creates the AZ zone!!!! (Absolute Zero) zone.  This is the lowest amount of energy zone.  At absolute zero there is no more movement as Temperature is proportional to kinetic energy.  We say absolute entropy S˚  as we are evaluating the dispersion of energy by how molecules move or vibrate. *Remember that bond enthalpies are averages because the stretch and recoil around the average bond length ( and stretch an recoil around their average bond enthalpy!)  
 
So at 0 K there is no more kinetic energy and every chemical that is in a crystal lattice will have the lowest amount of ability to move along each bond (stretch and recoil) and thus have the lowest ability to “disperse energy”!  This is the starting point at which we measure the absolute entropy of each chemical as we increase the temperature to the standard thermodynamic conditions denoted by the  S˚  (degree sign after the S).  Remember that the standard thermodynamic condition in tables are 25˚ and 1 atm of pressure.  The absolute entropy given in our tables IS LIKE THE REVERSE OF HEAT OF FORMATION!  Its the the total value of the chemicals ability to move as a molecules or move along its bonds.
 
Making a graphic here…
 
So the first law is so uplifting because every pathway is possible but the 2nd law is a downer because it tells us that every pathways IS not possible as there are pathways that are favored (allowable) over other pathways by the universe. What is worse is the 3rd Law which states that we are limited in these possibilities by 0K and yet we cannot achieve it!  
 
*We cannot get to O K because the energy needed to be removed by the system to get to O K will wind up reheating that system (2nd Law = Hot —-> Cold!)
 
This Energy that must disperse for the second law includes :
 
          kinetic energy  (∆H) and Potential Energy (bonds or degree of freedom of particles)
 
A Spontaneous process is an allowable pathway that the Universe provides because the process is moving in the direction that takes Concentrated Energy and is dispersing it  OVERALL in the Universe.  A better way to say this is that a spontaneous process or reaction ALWAYS increases the entropy ∆S or the universe.  A spontanenous has a pathway that requires no continual input of energy.  Example: Riding a pony uphill.  Or burning of paper! 
Spontaneous reactions or processes provide FREE Energy to do work. 
If the reaction or process does not increase the ∆S of the universe then the reaction has no pathway to occur and it is Non-spontaneous. It only occurs if there is constant supply of energy to force it forward. Example: Carrying the pony uphill! Also photosynthesis!
Non-Spontaneous reactions REQUIRE Free Energy to Make IT OCCUR!
Because ∆S MUST increases we cannot create engines that are 100 efficient because we must lose concentrated Energy (Free Energy) to the universe with every energy conversion. This is reason we cannot have a perpetual energy device that recycles energy!  There can never really be renewable energy!!! “What a Bummer!”
 
Spontaneous processes are Pathways that the Universe allows, however we can manipulate chemical reactions by Le Chateliers Principle OR WE CAN FORCE an nonspontaneous to occur IF WE USE FREE ENERGY to make it happen.  Last year we learned about energy coupling where we use spontaneous process (cellular respiration to make ATP) to Drive non-spontaneous processes (anabolically making large macro molecules like enzymes from amino acids).
 
            3. Use the follow along by taking notes.  If you want to use the Thermo pages I gave you last week or your  
                  own way to learn it is up to you. You know how you best learn!
 
THermo read along – Thermo notes.pdf
                   
                     a)   Interconnectivity between H, ∆S, and  ∆G.
                             Tablature review of ∆S, and  ∆G
 
thermo AP Tables.pdf
View Download
 
thermo AP Tables additions.pdf
View Download
 

Presentation that will be shown in the 2 lectures below:

Thermodynamics

 

Today’s Class Lectures:
 
Lecture 1:  Connecting Heats of formation, Bond Enthalpies and Hess Law with explanation of the Laws of Thermodynamics.  Here is where I start discussing ENTROPY, ∆S (for reactions) and S˚  (from tables).
Everything we do from Thermodynamic is based on the 2nd law which is the measure of whether a process is spontaneous!  Remember we started this in SEPTEMBER with our voltaic cells (batteries)!!!

YouTube Video

  Lecture 2:  I derive Gibbs Free Energy Formula which measures FREE ENERGY of the Universe using 
 the systems ∆H and ∆S.  I also discuss the signs of the thermo quantities that you need.
 The key here is that we ARE ABLE TO MEASURE THE ∆S of the universe by measuring the systems ∆H, T (K), and ∆S (of the system = degree of motion of molecules or ions)! We have a quantity that can measure whether a reaction has a pathway to succeed (Spontaneity!!!!!) and that quantity is ∆G!!!
 
Since everything we do is based on the 2nd Law, and ∆G is the measure of the second law, everything we do is based on ∆G!  I derive the equation for ∆G below!
We will now be using the following formulas:
 

 

If you notice in your Thermodynamic tables there are 2 other thermodynamic quantities,  S(absolute) and ∆G.
 

 

 
We can calculate the ∆S and ∆G through tablature by using the following formulas.  
 
Also ∆G can be determined through a formula that measures the Universe’s Entropy Change by just looking at the system!
 
 

                            

∆G = H – T∆S

 

∆G = H – T∆S!!!!!!
       
 
4/5 – Monday – Homework – I apologize to the class that only had 1 period today which results in you having more homework then the other class.  The other class will be on the other end of this starting Wednesday.  THESE ARE Important skills!!
Period 2  today needs to view lecture 2 above before you begin.
 
Period 2 needs to complete STEP #1 this while Period 3 can omit!
#1.  Please complete the thermo 6a – Enthalpy, Entropy , Gibbs of Glucose methane.pdf worksheet (side 1) with me using the posted video below:
                                                             We will now be using the following formulas:
 
thermo 6a – Enthalpy, Entropy , Gibbs of Glucose methane.pdf
View Download
 
thermo 6a – Enthalpy, Entropy , Gibbs of Glucose methane Key.pdf
View Download
THermo 6a worksheet lecture:
Period 2 and 3 both complete this below: Period 3 start Here!
2.  Please complete Thermo 7 – Gibbs Free energy Free Response 1984.pdf worksheet.
        It very much the same skills as the thermo 6a worksheet above. Review with key below.
  
Thermo 7 – Gibbs Free energy Free Response 1984.pdf
View Download
Thermo 7 – Gibbs Free energy Free Response 1984 key.pdf
View Download
3. View the Signs Lecture below and Then complete the Form posted below.
     If you need more help with the thermodynamic signs of the ∆G formula please view     
     the screencast lecture after the form below.
 
The Signs Lecture: 
Thermodynamic Sign form –  due Tuesday Morning 4:30 am:
 

THermo Quantities and Sign Form 2021

 

 
Additional resources:
Gibbs free Energy Lecture Screencast: 
I suggest that you watch the Signs lecture that is posted below posted to review the concepts in the 2nd class lecture posted today that is posted above.  These concepts  include the Signs of the thermodynamic values of H, ∆S, and ∆G in the Gibbs Free Energy equation.

 

End of Monday…..I hope you did not use up all of your Free Energy today!
 

4/6  –  Tuesday –  “C” Day   – period 2, –  I    2(A,C) 3(A)  AP CHEMISTRY
                                                     – period 2, –  R   2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
                
                                                      -period 3,4 (LAB) – I.  3(C) 4(A,C) AP CHEMISTRY 
                                                      -period 3,4 (LAB) – R  3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
 
Zoom Link:
Topic: AP Chemistry – 04.06 Periods 2,3,4
Time: Apr 6, 2021 08:00 AM Eastern Time (US and Canada)
Join Zoom Meeting
https://us02web.zoom.us/j/88572858734?pwd=QTB4eXVseTlmTkJNWW1UM1hUVnBKQT09
Meeting ID: 885 7285 8734
Passcode: 0UnqF7
One tap mobile
+16465588656,,88572858734#,,,,*690554# US (New York)
 
 
THERE ARE NO SHORTCUTS TO A GREAT JOB. Those of you trying to do the least amount will pay a price in your understanding and eventually in your grade. Listen to every minute of every lecture, complete every worksheet (and review with keys), and read everything that I post here.  Follow my plan.  Everything has a purpose.  I know it harder out of class but that is just how it is.
Think.  Do you think other AP Chemistry classes are doing what you are doing?   Ultimately your AP grade is based on (statistics) how you do compared to others that take it.
 
1. Please review Thermo Quantities and Sign Form. I have graded it and emailed it back you. 
 
THermo Quantities and Sign Form Key p.pdf
View Download
2.  We will review our Thermodynamic quantities, ∆G, ∆H, and ∆S, especially the Second Law of Thermodynamics!!
 
    a) 2nd law of Thermodynamics: ∆S universe  must increase!
    b) Derivation of ∆G = which is really a measure of the ∆S universe.
         – The cool thing is that we can relate the ∆S universe by relating the 2 system’s quantities:
           ∆H system and ∆S system .
      c) ∆S system  = the difference of the absolute entropy of molecules in the chemical reactions from reactants to products.
                                    Tablature values.
     
     d) calculation of ∆G from equation or tablature.
 
    e) Always Rule, Never Rule, Sometime Rule (Enthalpy driven or Entropy driven)
 
     f) Values of ∆G
 
     g)  OH and this was ∆G from standard conditions.
 
 
Previous recorded Lecture:
The most beautiful Thermodynamic equation that measures the entropy of the universe by measuring the systems ∆H  and  ∆S (degrees of freedom of particles).  You need to understand its derivation!
TOTAL Entropy of the Universe change is measured by the systems:
 
H – ENTHAPLY:
– the heat releases from an exothermic reaction actually speeds up the surrounding matter and makes them disperse the heat outward so that a systems release of heat (-H) will actually increase the Entropy of the surroundings.  H or exothermic values are favorable to the universe as in increases entropy!
 +H or endothermic values are unfavorable because the consume or absorb thermal energy away from the surroundings.  Endothermic reactions create products with higher potential energy and thus create concentrated sources or energy, which decreases entropy.
 
∆S – ENTHAPLY:
– The change of entropy of the system (∆S) is a measure of the absolute entropy changes in chemical reaction that will either increase or decrease the degrees of freedom of molecules or ions ability to move and spread out or disperse the heat. If in the course of a chemical or physical process the products have greater change in their degrees of freedom or Entropy (∆S) then the entropy increases in the system, thus +∆S is a favorable condition, while a ∆S is an unfavorable condition that lead to less ability of molecules or ions to dissipate heat with less degrees of freedom.
 
                                                                    ∆G = H – T∆S
If the entropy of the universe increases then ∆G negative and the chemical reaction is SPONTANEOUS!  THERE IS A PATHWAY AND FREE ENERGY (∆G) decreases as it is being released so that you can do work without a constant supply of energy!! (riding a pony or a kayak moving with the current).
 
Hand Warmer Demo: The crystallization or precipitate must give off heat to be spontaneous!!
                                               Entropy Driven!!!  The favorable entropy (-∆H) can overcome the unfavorable (∆S) if                                                   enough heat is released.
 
                                                –∆H  = the hand warmer reaction releases Heat to the surroundings!
 
                                        ∆S  = a solid is being formed and solids have less ability to move than other
                                                                                                                      phases of matter.
 
                                                                     ∆G =     ∆H        –   T  ∆S
                                                       
                                    ∆G can be negative  = if ∆H is              –   T    to overcome 
                                                                                                               large enough                the unfavorable
                                                                                                               negative value              negative value
 
 
                      Sometimes Rule                        ∆G   =         (-)            –   T  (-)
                                                                                                 favorable                       unfavorable
                                                                            ∆G   =         (-)             +  T  (+)
 
So as long the ∆H is negative enough to overcome the positive value at the end the ∆G will be negative (which means the reaction increases the universes entropy and the reaction is spontaneous!).  If that is the case like in the hand warmer demo below than the reaction is spontaneous and is ENTHALPY driven!
 
And so any solidification or crystallization MUST be exothermic. Ask Gavin A if his arm got warm when they put a cast on his arm last year?  When it snows the air gets a bit warmer!  Freezing is exothermic. Cement solidifying in exothermic!
 
4. Thermodynamics test practice –   We will have a Thermodynamics Test Tonight
I have posted a blank copy of todays  (Thermo Test 1) – I know many have trouble printing at home so use your computer to view and write your answers on a separate piece of paper.  Please take out you AP reference table and calculator.
 
Give yourself 25 minutes only!!!!!!
 
(Blank)
THermo Test 1 – 7a – THermo Test 1.pdf
View Download
 
4/6  –  Tuesday –  “C” Day  – Homework:
 
1. Please view the lecture below on the derivation. I am asking that you follow along and try to pick up the major understandings of the derivation.
 
I used the following notes to derive this:
Thermo 9 Notes for nonstandard.pdf
View Download
 
2.  Complete the form that reviews the lecture.
 
3. Complete Thermo test 1 – show all work! It will be handed in tomorrow.
Nonstandard G derivation formula:
 Derivation lecture FORM:  Please make one submission. This form is not on auto-grade.
 

Nonstandard delta G derivation 2021

 

 
End of Tuesday..

4/7  –  Wednesday –  “D” Day    – period 2,3 (Lab)  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                             – period 2,3 (Lab) –  R  2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
  
                                                             – period 4 – I  3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                             – period 4 – R 3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
Zoom link:
Topic: AP Chemistry – 04.07 Periods 2,3,4
Time: Apr 7, 2021 08:00 AM Eastern Time (US and Canada)
 
Join Zoom Meeting
https://us02web.zoom.us/j/83831077469?pwd=RXB5WHRRdWpDemMyQTZNZ2FqSzEvUT09
 
Meeting ID: 838 3107 7469
Passcode: YN97F0
One tap mobile
+16465588656,,83831077469#,,,,*910430# US (New York)
 
 
 
1. Review of last nights test.
 
THermo Test 1 – 7a – THermo Review Test Key 1718 p.pdf
View Download
     
 
Today’s Notes:
 
Okay we have seen that that changes in concentrations (molarity) of solutes in a solution or partial pressures in a mixture of gases can gauge or measure the change in a systems entropy (S) from nonstandard values we get from tablature.  This means the S(from standard conditions) can be converted into S (from nonstandard conditions) by how much the concentration of molarities change from 1M (for c) or 1 atm (for p)  (standard conditions).
 
                                            S   =    S0    –  R  ln c             or              S =     S0    –  R  ln p
             We track how much the c or p changes from 1 by using the reaction quotient (Q).
 
                                                                        S  =    S0    –  R  ln Q
 
                                                                    Q = [Products]x   
                                                                            [Reactants]y
 
Since the systems entropy is connected to overall entropy of the universe in the Gibbs free energy equation:
 
                                                               ∆G0 = H0 – T∆S0
 
When we substitute the nonstandard entropy (S) into the above equation and simplify we get an equation that measures nonstandard ∆G!!! We are not bound by standard conditions no more!!
 
                                                              ∆G = ∆G0  RT ln Q
 
This means that we can evaluate chemicals reactions spontaneity based on a evaluation of the what the current concentrations or partial pressures are (Q).  Changing the concentrations of the products and reactants changes the ∆G or spontaneity! 
This is the equation of Le Chateliers Principle!
 
This equation is your reference tables:
1. Class Lecture:
 
Based on Last nights Form review – Non standard ∆G
I am using the files below in the video to review:
 
NONstandard Form most wrong 2019 form p.pdf
View Download
 
Thermo 9 Notes for nonstandard.pdf
View Download
3.  Nonstandard  ∆G with equilibrium derivation!
 
      Keq vs Q 
 
4. Le Chateliers Principle returns!!!
 
– What are really the Shifts?
 
4/7  –  Wednesday –  “D” Day Homework – 
     
1.  Complete thermo 6 – Gibbs Free Energy 1617.pdf with me with another lecture that is posted below. 
 
thermo 6 – Gibbs Free Energy 1617.pdf
View Download
 
thermo 6 – Gibbs Free Energy key.pdf
View Download
Wednesday’s Homework Lecture:  
 
2. Complete the Thermo 2 test. This is due tomorrow.
THermo Test 2 .pdf
View Download
 
 
End of Wednesday….

4/8  – Thursday –  “A” Day           – period 2,3 (Lab) –     2(A,C) 3(A)  AP CHEMISTRY
                                                               – period 2,3 (Lab) –  R   2(A,C) 3(A) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
                                                             – period 4 – I   3(C) 4(A,C) AP CHEMISTRY 
                                                             – period 4 – R  3(C) 4(A,C) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
Zoom link:
Topic: AP Chemistry – 04.08 – Periods 2,3,4
Time: Apr 8, 2021 08:00 AM Eastern Time (US and Canada)
Join Zoom Meeting
https://us02web.zoom.us/j/86067335439?pwd=b2V1QlhRcTh2K1pSQlZRMUYvUDM5dz09
Meeting ID: 860 6733 5439
Passcode: a0WWYY
One tap mobile
+16465588656,,86067335439#,,,,*150872# US (New York)
 
 
1. Collect Thermo 2 test and review with the key.
2. Derivation of  ∆G formula that ties spontaneity with equilibrium (Keq).
    Short lecture below!
 
Today’s small lecture from a tall teacher:
3.  Using our new formula of ∆G that relates to Keq (equilibrium constants):
 
Ok so we should understand that the larger the Keq the more more negative the ΔG and the smaller the Keq the  more positive ΔG is.  
 
This is intuitive but it relates to the following formula:
 
                                                                     ΔGo=−RTlnK
 
 
 
 
SO a very large K value (really a Q at equilibrium position) will make the ln K part of the equation VERY LARGE and thus that would make the – RT ln K become a LARGER negative value.
 
                                                                     ΔGo=−RTlnK
 
 
 
                                                                     ΔGo=− value = VERY Spontaneous!
 
 
 
Why?  Because the equilibrium position favors the formation or production of products MUCH more than the reactants.  If the products are favored so much more than the reactant than the reaction HAS A PREFERRED PATHWAY TO MOVE FORWARD!  Isn’t that what spontaneity is!!!!!!!
 
If the K value is small the reactants are favored and the REVERSE reaction in more favored and a small K value (which would be a number less than 1 would make the ln (number less than 1) = a negative number.
                                                                    ΔGo=−RTlnK
 
 
 
 
                                                                               ΔGo= ( negative value due to the log of a number less than 1 = – #)
 
 
 
 
                                                                    ΔGo=− ( negative) 
 
 
 
                                                                   ΔGo= positive and non spontaneous in the forward reaction
 
 
So if your not very good in the forward direction you become good in the reverse and that is why the reactants are favored in small K values!
 
 
Hey that formula is  in our reference tables!!! In Blue?
 
 
4/8  – Thursday –  “A” Day  – Homework – 
1. Read the posted Notes that are in the separate page in 3rd quarter:
2.  View the in class lecture (up to question 27:00 min mark only) about how ∆G, Keq, and Q are connected. (Le Chateliers Principle!!)
 
3:  View the tank demonstration
 
4. Complete the form below.
5. Complete the both sides of Equilibrium 1 – Gibbs.pdf worksheet and review with key. Careful with the math. If you are not accustomed to working with natural log please use the key to help.  The calculator does all the work really and I will explain tomorrow if the math gets you down.
Equlibrium 1 – Gibbs- 1819.pdf
View Download
 
Equlibrium 1 – Gibbs- 1819 Key p.pdf
View Download
Lecture for the form(up to question 27:00 min mark only):
Form:

Equilibrium, Q, Gibbs Free Energy, and Le Chatelier’s Principle – 2021

 

Tank Demonstration:
 
End of Thursday..

4/9  – Friday –  “B” Day             period 2,  –  I   2(B,D) 3(D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                          -period 2, –  R   2(B,D) 3(D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
                                                            -period 3,4 (LAB) – I   3(B) 4(B,D) AP CHEMISTRY
                                                            -period 3,4 (LAB) – R  3(B) 4(B,D) REMOTE INSTRUCTION
 
Zoom Link:
Topic: AP Chemistry – 04.09 – Periods 2,3,4
Time: Apr 9, 2021 08:00 AM Eastern Time (US and Canada)
 
Join Zoom Meeting
https://us02web.zoom.us/j/87998647290?pwd=UXlBM1V3RDJCTkpzRGQ0NmdTNkdRdz09
 
Meeting ID: 879 9864 7290
Passcode: 5Yje9m
One tap mobile
+16465588656,,87998647290#,,,,*218551# US (New York)
 
 
1. Please review last nights form with the video below if you had problems with the concepts last night.
 
Review of last nights form:
Todays lecture(27:00 –  to the end):
2.  ∆G and equilibrium (Keq), Completion to equilibrium reactions 
     – thermo google slides – (slides 61 – 62)
 
Thermo google slides: (slides 57 – 59)

Thermodynamics

 
3. Quick review of Le Chatelier’s principle with worksheet – 
 
            -Focus here is to discuss the “shift” with temperature or the repositioning of the Keq     
             position.
LeChateliers principle worksheet.pdf
 
LeChateliers principle worksheet KEY 2012 p.pdf
View Download
 
              a) Great time to discuss the fizz keeper! and how this relates with solubility of gases into water
4.  Le Chatelier’s Principle (Q vs. Keq) with solutions, 
 
Cobalt complex Lab Demo – 
Cobalt Complex Le Chateliers (Regents Chemistry) Lab:
 
 
5. Le Chateliers’s Principle with Heat,  N2O4  ——>  2 NOdemo
       a) Heat changes the Keq position. 
      b) Derivation
 
Equlibrium 2 – Gibbs and lechats.pdf
View Download
 
Equlibrium 2 – Gibbs and lechats key.pdf
View Download
 
                                 
We know that increases and decreases of Temperature CHANGE Keq position or value.  An Endothermic Reaction is favored in higher temperatures and an Exothermic Reaction is favored in lowered temperatures. We understand this by setting our standard ΔG formulas together and looking at the ln K equals (specifically at the ΔH part of the equation).
 
Please Read before completing Homework:
 

 

So what does all of this mean?
 
When the temperature increases the Endothermic reaction (pathway) is favored.  
So when the temperature increases the endothermic pathway or direction will become more spontaneous. 
This means that a reaction will “shift” towards the endothermic reaction when the temperature increases BECAUSE the Keq (K) CHANGES!!!   The equilibrium constant is sensitive to temperature.  The “shift” occurs BEcAUSE the Keq changes. This is unlike all other stresses.
In the demo with the NO2/N2O tubes we figured out that the chemical reaction looked like this:
 
2 NO2(g)  —->  N2O4 (g)  +  Heat

                                                             Brown                            clear

 
The reaction shifts to left when we heat the tubes AND we saw this in the lecture.  The tube became DARKER when heated because When The Temperature Increases the Reaction Shifts to the Endothermic Pathway which is in the Left direction.  In this case, the Keq became smaller with increasing temperature.
 
**Temperature increases ——> Shift in the Endothermic Direction (in the left direction above)
 
                        And when considering an exothermic reaction with a ΔH= negative value
 
**Temperature decreases ——> Shift in the Exothermic Direction (in the right direction)
 
which is why the tubes get clearer when placed in ice.
 
4/9  – Friday –  “B” Day  Homework –          
1.  Please make one more submission to the Non standard  ΔG form posted Tuesday if needed.
2.  Please complete the Le Chateliers Principle Side 1 and review with the key.  Think while you are doing the worksheet, “What are we doing with Q in relation to K? “When does Keq move in relation to Q?
THis worksheet should look familiar!!!!
 
LeChateliers principle worksheet.pdf
View Download
 
LeChateliers principle worksheet KEY 2012 p.pdf
View Download
3. Please use the worksheet below to follow along with me in the lecture below. ONLY THE  FIRST SIDE!
    THis will make perfect sense if you are on it and have been fighting through all my forms!
 
Equlibrium 3 – Equilibrium constants 1.pdf
View Download
 
Equlibrium 3 – Equilibrium constants 1 key.pdf
View Download
 
4.  We will do only the first side!!! The second side is the Quadratic catastrophe that we will discuss      
     Monday.
 
5. Complete form below:
 
Equilibrium Ice table / intro to KSP / Q vs K in action:
 
I made mistake in question 2 (although the answer of the Ksp is correct):  
I should have (1.3 x 10-4 /2) in the value for the equilibrium concentration for the CrO4-2 ion in both the ice table and inside the formula for the solving of the Ksp value.
 
I made a mistake (imagine that!) on number three. In the ICE table in for the second reactant I should of calculated 1.06 x 10-3 not .065 x 10-3.  THanks Caroline!!!!
The final Keq is calculated correct but I had the wrong value there.
 
Weekend form:
 

LeChatelier’s Principle with Thermodynamics and Equilibrium intro

 

End or week 8 and the 3rd quarter.
Add files

Comments